Table 1

Characteristics of participants with and without self-reported unmet needs for care in Vancouver, Toronto, and Ottawa, Canada, 2009
All participants (n = 1181) Participants with unmet needs (n = 445) Participants without unmet needs (n = 736) p
Demographics, n (%) 0.71
 Homeless 592 (50.1) 220 (49.4) 372 (50.5)
 Vulnerably housed 589 (49.9) 225 (50.6) 364 (49.5)
Age group, n (%) 0.52
 <30 years 159 (13.5) 62 (14.0) 97 (13.2)
 30–39 years 291 (24.7) 116 (26.2) 175 (23.8)
 40–49 years 439 (37.2) 166 (37.5) 273 (37.1)
 ≥50 years 290 (24.6) 99 (22.3) 191 (26.0)
Gender, n (%) 0.25
 Male 773 (65.7) 286 (64.4) 487 (66.4)
 Female 386 (32.8) 154 (34.7) 232 (31.7)
 Transgender 18 (1.5) 4 (0.9) 14 (1.9)
City, n (%) 0.16
 Vancouver 391 (33.1) 160 (36.0) 231 (31.4)
 Toronto 396 (33.5) 136 (30.6) 260 (35.3)
 Ottawa 394 (33.4) 149 (33.5) 245 (33.3)
Born in Canada, n (%) 992 (84.5) 386 (87.1) 606 (82.9) 0.05
Racial/cultural group, n (%) <0.01
 White 712 (62.2) 282 (65.0) 430 (60.5)
 Black/African-Canadian 106 (9.3) 33 (7.6) 73 (10.3)
 First Nations/Aboriginal 204 (17.8) 79 (18.2) 125 (17.6)
 Mixed ethnicity 64 (5.6) 30 (6.9) 34 (4.8)
 Other 59 (5.2) 10 (2.3) 49 (6.9)
Highest level of education, n (%) 0.38
 Some post-secondary education or more 375 (32.0) 148 (33.4) 227 (31.1)
 Completed high school or equivalent 274 (23.4) 94 (21.2) 180 (24.7)
 Some high school 523 (44.6) 201 (45.4) 322 (44.2)
Employed past 12 months, n (%) 468 (39.7) 186 (41.9) 282 (38.4) 0.23
Lifetime duration of homelessness (yrs), mean (SD) 5.1 (6.0) 5.5 (6.3) 4.9 (5.8) 0.07
EQ-VAS score (perceived state of health), mean (SD) 61.5 (21.8) 55.5 (22.2) 65.0 (20.8) <0.01
EQ-5D index score, mean (SD) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) <0.01
Been victim of sexual assault over past 12 months, n (%) 104 (8.9) 55 (12.4) 49 (6.7) <0.01
Has a provincial health card number, n (%) 991 (86.9) 365 (85.5) 626 (87.7) 0.29
Has unmet needs for mental care, n (%) 275 (23.4) 183 (41.4) 92 (12.6) <0.01
Has primary care provider, n (%) 713 (60.5) 252 (56.8) 461 (62.7) 0.04
SF-12 PCS, 1 mean (SD) 44.5 (11.3) 41.4 (10.9) 46.4 (11.1) <0.01
SF-12 MCS, mean (SD) 39.1 (13.1) 34.9 (12.2) 41.6 (12.9) <0.01
Number of chronic health conditions, 2 n (%) <0.01
 0 150 (12.7) 30 (6.7) 120 (16.3)
 1 248 (21.0) 69 (15.5) 179 (24.3)
 2 195 (16.5) 65 (14.6) 130 (17.7)
 ≥ 3 588 (49.8) 281 (63.1) 307 (41.7)
Diagnosed with a mental health disorder, n (%) 600 (51.5) 260 (59.2) 340 (46.9) <0.01

1On a scale where 50 is the mean and 10 is the standard deviation in the US general population.

2Chronic health conditions include: high blood pressure; heart disease; asthma; COPD (includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis); cirrhosis; Hepatitis B or C; intestinal or stomach ulcers; urinary incontinence; bowel disorders; arthritis; problems walking, lost limb, or other physical handicap; HIV/AIDS; epilepsy; fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; head injury; glaucoma; cataracts; cancer, diabetes; or anemia.

Argintaru et al.

Argintaru et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:577   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-577

Open Data