Table 1

Summary of literature
Title of article/chapter Year of publication Authors Source Nature of research: methods Summary of findings
1. Why Women Object to Male Circumcision to Prevent HIV in a Moderate-Prevalence Setting 2013 Kelly (Reference No. 70) Qualitative Health Research Original Research (descriptive): Qualitative research (semi-structured interviews and focus groups n = 210) A minority of women accepted male circumcision for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and for the benefit of penile hygiene and health. Women’s objections to circumcision as a biomedical method of preventing HIV re-emphasise the importance of sociocultural and behavioural interventions in PNG.
2. At risk: The relationship between experiences of child sexual abuse and women’s HIV status in Papua New Guinea. 2012 Lewis (Reference No. 60) Journal of Child Sexual Abuse Original Research (descriptive): Mixed methods study (structured survey n = 415; HIV testing n = 312) Child sexual abuse was reported by 27.5% of the sample (n = 114). Women reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to live in violent relationships, be HIV positive, and have a higher number of sexual partners.
3. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 2011 Bruce (Reference No. 53) International Journal of Women’s Health Original Research (descriptive): Mixed Method study (survey n = 174; semi-structured interviews n = 142; focus group discussions n = 32) Most female sex workers were aware of the risks of HIV but used condoms inconsistently. Contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. Application for HIV prevention strategies.
4. Understanding the context of providing HIV prevention and treatment in Papua New Guinea. 2011 Clarke (Reference No. 61) Journal of Trans cultural Nursing Discussion Paper Examination of biological, socio cultural, and political influences on the HIV epidemic and on prevention and treatment strategies in PNG.
5. Askim na save (Ask and understand): People who sell and/or exchange sex in Port Moresby. 2011 Kelly (Reference No. 12) Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research and University of New South Wales Original Research (descriptive): bio-behavioural study using mixed methods (survey n = 593 (women n = 441); in-depth interviews n = 25 (women n = 16) The study maps the sale and exchange of sex in Port Moresby providing a more detailed understanding of sex workers and their vulnerability to HIV.
6. Reading generalised HIV epidemics as a woman 2011 Reid (Reference No. 2) State Society and Governance in Melanesia, Australian National University Discussion paper 2011/4 Socially constructed spaces of femininity and masculinity, including use of power and gendered practices shape interactions. Reading generalised epidemics as a woman provides ways to work within these spaces so that women’s lives and the lives of those that are important to them are transformed and protected.
7. Bio-behavioural sentinel surveillance survey among women attending the Port Moresby General Hospital Antenatal (PPTCT) Clinic 2008 2010 (a) Arawafu (Reference No. 58) National Research Institute of PNG Original Research (descriptive): bio-behavioural study using mixed methods (survey n = 300; women n = 172). Documented economic, social and cultural factors including sexual practices which contribute to HIV risk for women attending the Port Moresby General Hospital Antenatal Clinic.
8. Bio-behavioural sentinel surveillance survey among women attending Lae Friends STI clinic 2008. 2010 (b) Arawafu (Reference No. 67) National Research Institute of PNG Original Research (descriptive): bio-behavioural study using mixed methods (survey n = 307 women). Documented economic, social and cultural factors including sexual practices which contribute to HIV risk for women attending the Lae Friends STI Clinic.
9. Behavioural surveillance research in rural development enclaves in Papua New Guinea: A study with the Oil Search Limited workforce. 2010 Buchanan (Reference No. 66) National Research Institute of PNG Original Research (descriptive): bio-behavioural study using mixed methods (survey n = 299; women n = 161). Documented economic, social and cultural factors including sexual practices which contribute to HIV risk in the WR Carpenter Estates workforce, Western Highlands Province.
10. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviour of female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 2010 Bruce (Reference No. 50) Sexual Health Journal Original Research (descriptive): Quantitative study (n = 79) 72% respondents consistently use condoms. Condom use is yet to reach the required level to protect female sex workers from HIV.
11. AIDS and ‘building a wall’ around Christian country in rural Papua New Guinea. 2010 Dundon (Reference No. 62) Australian Journal of Anthropology Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) A growing divide between rural and urban Gogodala, then, has become a major part of the local dialogue about AIDS and represents significant contestation over the practices and ideational basis of Christian country.
12. From Gift to Commodity . . . and Back Again: Form and Fluidity of Sexual Networking in Papua New Guinea 2010 Hammar (Reference No. 54) In, Civic Insecurity: Law, Order and HIV in Papua New Guinea. Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) Sexual networking is a social process, thus critical ethnographic and social research provides evidence to respond to HIV in PNG; epidemic in PNG is unique to PNG context; just governance and a vibrant civil society is required to respond successfully to HIV; state sponsored brothels will not be the answer to PNG’s HIV epidemic and fails to respond to male sexual privilege and sex-negative attitudes.
13. Witchcraft, Torture and HIV. 2010 Haley (Reference No. 69) In, Civic Insecurity: Law, Order and HIV in Papua New Guinea. Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) Accusations of witchcraft in the Highlands of PNG appear to be increasing and often result in torture, rape and sometimes death. Changed sexual practices shape the way people are experiencing the HIV epidemic in the Highlands, with AIDS-related deaths being widely interpreted in terms of witchcraft.
14. Gendered talk about sex, sexual relationships and HIV among young people in Papua New Guinea. 2010 Kelly (Reference No. 56) Culture, Health and Sexuality journal Original Research (descriptive): Qualitative study with high school students (focus groups n = 8; no. student’s =73) When discussing sex, young men used explicit language and referred specifically to sexual organs and activities; young women did not. Young men were more open publically about sex; young women discussed sex one-on-one and in private. Application for HIV prevention strategies.
15. Attitudes to HIV testing among carers of children admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea. 2008 Allison (Reference No. 57) Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health Original Research (descriptive): Qualitative study: semi-structured interviews (n = 40) Three quarters of the women interviewed would consent to having their child tested for HIV; over half of the women who had never undertaken a HIV test would agree to be tested.
16. Buying Betel and Selling Sex: Contested Boundaries, Risk Milieus, and Discourses about HIV/AIDS in the Markham Valley, Papua New Guinea 2008 Beer (Reference No. 68) In, Making Sense of AIDS: Culture, Sexuality, and Power in Melanesia Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) Analysis of demographic and social change for people living in the Markham Valley as conditions for risk of HIV. Specifically, land pressure, population growth and inward migration of non-Wampar people are described.
17. Fear and Loathing in Papua New Guinea: Sexual health in a nation under siege. 2008 Hammar (Reference No. 64) In, Making Sense of AIDS: Culture, Sexuality, and Power in Melanesia Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) Strengths and weaknesses of health services in PNG are identified, including limitations of current HIV prevention initiatives. Description of attitudes towards sexual practices and taboos, including treatment of people living (and dying) with AIDS.
18. Mobility, violence and the gendering of HIV in Papua New Guinea. 2008 Lepani, K. (Reference No. 34) Australian Journal of Anthropology Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) The links between gender, sexuality and violence hold serious implications for HIV transmission and its social and economic effects.
19. Violence against women in Papua New Guinea. 2008 Lewis (Reference No. 22) Journal of Family Studies Original Research (descriptive): Mixed methods study (structured survey n = 415; HIV testing n = 312) Programmes concerned with HIV prevention must include interventions to counter domestic violence and increasing the social status of women in PNG.
20. Warrior women, the holy spirit and HIV/AIDS in Rural Papua New Guinea. 2007 Dundon (Reference No. 63) Oceania Journal Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) Warrior women seek to make both AIDS and those who encourage or enable its spread more visible. A small number of them are overcome by the Holy Spirit - their behaviour increasingly characterised by childishness and uncontrolled sexuality.
21. Knowledge, morality and ‘Kastom’: SikAIDS among young Yupno people, Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea. 2007 Keck (Reference No. 13) Oceania Journal Original Research: Qualitative study: semi-structured interviews (n = 24) Local understandings of HIV are shaped by cultural, moral and religious concepts based on social values and practices. A broad and contextually sensitive approach to sexual health is required.
22. Men’s extramarital sexuality in rural Papua New Guinea. 2007 Wardlow (Reference No. 55) American Journal of Public Health Original Research (descriptive): Qualitative study: interviews (n = 65) Married women in rural PNG are at risk of HIV primarily because of their husbands’ extramarital relationships. Labour migration puts these men in social contexts that encourage infidelity. Interventions that promote fidelity will fail in the absence of a social and economic infrastructure that supports fidelity.
23. ‘Mainstreaming’ HIV in Papua New Guinea: Putting gender equity first. 2006 Seeley & Butcher (Reference No. 65) Gender and Development Journal Programme Description A scheme in the oil palm industry in PNG that specifically targets women to ensure that they benefit in the harvesting of oil palm. Women are gaining economic independence. The scheme is also reducing conflict and gender-based violence contributing to arresting the spread of HIV.
24. High Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea: Correlates and Recommendations. 2005 Gare, J (Reference No. 30) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Journal Original Research (descriptive): Quantitative study: structured interviews (n = 211) None of the women were positive for HIV. 74% were positive for at least 1 STI and 43% had multiple STI infections. High-risk sexual behaviours were common among the women, including low and inconsistent use of condoms, with most of them attributing this to unavailability, dislike by or familiarity with clients, and being drunk and/or high on marijuana.
25. “Everything has come up to the open space”: Talking about sex in an epidemic 2005 Lepani (Reference No. 76) Working Paper No. 15; Australian National University Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = NA) The Trobriand islands’ context described shows effective communication about HIV needs to centralise local understandings of gender, sexuality and reproduction.
26. Anger, Economy, and Female Agency: Problematizing “Prostitution” and “Sex Work” among the Huli of Papua New Guinea 2004 Wardlow (Reference No. 51) Signs Journal Original Research (descriptive): Ethnographic enquiry (n = 18) Huli women known as pasinja meri (passenger women) sell sex not due to material necessity but from anger and resistance. Pasinja meris exchange of sex for money is not perceived as the crude sale of something that should not be sold, but a kind of theft (and consumption) of a resource that rightfully belongs to a woman’s kin.

Redman-MacLaren et al.

Redman-MacLaren et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:552   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-552

Open Data