## Table 4 |
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Determinants of average annual costs of hospitalization (multivariable Gamma Generalized Equations Estimate model with log link) |
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Males |
Females |
|||

Variables |
Effect* |
(95% CI) |
Effect* |
(95% CI) |

Age (one year) | 1.01 | (1.00-1.01) | 1.01 | (1.00-1.01) |

WC (10 cm) | 0.97 | (0.83-1.12) | 1.08 | (1.02-1.14) |

BMI (one unit) | 1.01 | (0.98-1.04) | 0.99 | (0.98-1.00) |

Hypertensive disease | 1.18 | (1.08-1.28) | 1.21 | (1.17-1.26) |

Malignant neoplasms | 1.25 | (1.04-1.51) | 1.37 | (1.12-1.68) |

Respiratory diseases | 1.40 | (1.10-1.79) | 1.24 | (1.10-1.38) |

Diabetes | 0.92 | (0.82-1.03) | 0.98 | (0.90-1.06) |

CVDs | 1.22 | (1.07-1.39) | 0.97 | (0.89-1.06) |

CVDs in cohort members with diabetes** | 1.27 | (1.14-1.43) | 1.35 | (1.08-1.69) |

Mental disorders | 1.06 | (0.61-1.85) | 1.16 | (1.09-1.24) |

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue | 1.15 | (1.04-1.26) | 1.45 | (1.39-1.51) |

* Effect=mean costs ratio, obtained as exponential of model coefficients. Model adjusted for height, educational level, marital status, current cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption.

** Test for interaction: males p=0.625; females p=0.007.

*CI* confidence interval, *WC* waist circumference, *BMI* body mass index, *CVDs* cardiovascular diseases.

Migliore * et al.*

Migliore * et al.* *BMC Public Health* 2013 **13**:544 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-544