Table 1

Gender differences in education, employment, alcohol consumption and smoking
Measure Gender Chi-square test
F M
N (%) N (%)
Education (yrs) χ2 (1, 2784) = 52.94, p < 0.001
< 12 yrs 595 (38.2) 639 (52.0)
> 12 yrs 961 (61.8) 589 (48.0)
Employment χ2 (1, 2821) = 0.87, p = 0.35
Employed 1495 (94.6) 1164 (93.8)
Unemployed 85 (5.4) 77 (6.2)
Alcohol consumptiona χ2 (1, 2760) = 138.15, p < 0.001
Non-risk level 1426 (92.0) 918 (75.9)
Risk level 124 (8.0) 292 (24.1)
Nicotine dependency (smoking) χ2 (1, 2789) = 24.20, p < 0.001
Daily 248 (15.9) 288 (23.3)
Occasionally / not at all 1307 (84.1) 946 (76.7)

a Risk-level alcohol consumption is defined as consuming at least 6 units of alcohol at least once a week.

Castrén et al.

Castrén et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:519   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-519

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