Table 2

Household (HH) demographics and socioeconomic and neighbourhood characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI), multivariate, multilevel analysis stratified by HH monthly income group, Paris metropolitan area, 2010 (a)
Household income ≤ 791 € (poverty threshold for household income per CU) n=371 Household income [791–1166 €] n=542 Household income >1166 € n=2093
% FIa aOR 95% CI % FIa aOR 95% CI % FIa aOR 95% CI
HH income per CU/100 €
0.90 [0.75-1.08] 0.70 [0.53-0.91] 0.88 [0.83-0.94]
HH type
Single-family HH 22.53 Ref. - 8.20 Ref. - 1.35 Ref. -
Two-or-more family HH 47.06 2.24 [0.73-6.87] 26.67 5.58 [1.34-23.24] 7.69 5.36 [1.09-26.45]
Single-parent family 34.62 2.89 [1.10-7.62] 25.69 5.60 [2.05-15.32] 9.46 5.85 [2.19-15.59]
Single-person HH 22.22 1.32 [0.56-3.10] 12.50 3.28 [1.20-8.96] 3.48 3.43 [1.56-7.54]
Unrelated-persons HH 13.64 0.79 [0.19-3.32] 0.00 NC . 7.04 6.57 [2.13-20.25]
Presence of children < 3 years of age
No 22.26 Ref. - 12.50 Ref. - 2.84 Ref. -
Yes 42.62 2.11 [1.08-4.12] 16.13 1.36 [0.58-3.16] 3.25 1.17 [0.42-3.24]
HH head's gender
Male 26.09 Ref. - 10.61 Ref. - 2.31 Ref. -
Female 24.82 0.55 [0.24-1.26] 16.51 0.65 [0.28-1.54] 4.21 0.72 [0.35-1.45]
HH head's age
60 or over 18.52 Ref. - 7.88 Ref. - 1.18 Ref. -
30-59 27.73 0.65 [0.25-1.70] 14.94 1.73 [0.28-10.77] 3.57 2.56 [0.64-10.21]
18-29 26.47 0.86 [0.22-3.41] 16.33 2.55 [0.33-19.86] 6.30 3.02 [0.61-14.96]
HH head's occupation
Active worker 25.17 Ref. - 15.18 Ref. - 3.19 Ref. -
Unemployed 31.87 1.33 [0.71-2.52] 15.91 1.05 [0.39-2.83] 7.89 1.64 [0.46-5.86]
Student 12.50 0.46 [0.07-2.90] 6.67 0.35 [0.03-4.01] 12.50 2.36 [0.41-13.42]
Retired 14.93 0.50 [0.17-1.49] 7.84 0.95 [0.14-6.38] 1.35 1.07 [0.27-4.26]
Homemaker 30.43 1.01 [0.33-3.05] 0.00 NC . 7.14 1.38 [0.16-11.96]
Disabled 42.86 2.49 [0.86-7.22] 30.77 2.70 [0.61-11.95] 50.00 34.98 [3.64-336.16]
Neighbourhood socio economic status
Middle- or upper- class 21.00 Ref. - 8.57 Ref. - 2.01 Ref. -
Working-class 22.73 0.98 [0.46-2.08] 11.36 1.35 [0.57-3.19] 3.42 1.05 [0.51-2.18]
Underprivileged 30.43 1.30 [0.63-2.67] 18.32 2.15 [0.96-4.80] 5.41 1.70 [0.91-3.18]
Between-area variation Variance SE Variance SE Variance SE
0.10 0.19 0.23 0.23 0.00 0.00

a Unweighted.

Martin-Fernandez et al.

Martin-Fernandez et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:486   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-486

Open Data