Table 1

Factor analysis and t-test: reliability of constraints on leisure of breastfeed directly and two clusters of breastfeeding mothers
Breastfeeding practice Clusters based on leisure preference and participation
Statement constraints Chronbach α Total (N = 415) Breastfeeding directly (N = 177) All other practices (N = 238) t-value Action group (N = 231) Contemplation group (N = 184) t value
Intrapersonal constraints .862 2.12 2.13 2.11 -.240 2.05 2.20 −2.324*
 Lack of interest 2.52 2.41 2.60 1.655 2.37 2.71 −3.019**
 Lack of confidence 1.96 2.00 1.93 -.813 1.87 2.08 −2.437*
 Afraid of going out alone 2.07 2.19 1.98 −1.936 2.04 2.10 -.503
 Health concern 1.93 1.97 1.90 -.790 1.91 1.96 -.599
 Difficult to get along with others 1.70 1.75 1.66 −1.256 1.65 1.75 −1.387
 Unpleasant experience 1.97 1.99 1.94 .530 1.93 2.01 -.845
 Not satisfied with self-body image 2.00 2.03 1.98 -.486 1.95 2.08 −1.320
 Poor physical fitness 2.50 2.48 2.51 .258 2.44 2.57 −1.126
 Lack of skill 2.41 2.36 2.44 .701 2.27 2.59 −2.952**
Interpersonal constraints .887 2.54 2.54 2.53 -.100 2.54 2.53 .106
 My family/friends oppose 2.15 2.14 2.15 .055 2.09 2.22 −1.196
 No partner 2.75 2.76 2.73 .230 2.72 2.79 -.581
 My partners are too busy at work 2.64 2.67 2.60 .631 2.66 2.62 .319
 My partner are not available 2.26 2.26 2.26 -.075 2.31 2.19 1.295
 My partners have difficulty traveling 2.31 2.38 2.26 −1.164 2.32 2.31 .128
 My partners do not have time 3.12 3.14 3.09 -.424 3.10 3.14 -.343
 My partners’ interests are different 2.69 2.68 2.69 .142 2.75 2.61 1.393
 My partners do not have such leisure skills 2.39 2.39 2.38 -.040 2.38 2.40 -.187
Structural constraints .824 3.07 3.00 3.11 1.480 3.05 3.09 -.548
 Weather issues 3.23 3.28 3.20 -.786 3.34 3.10 2.144*
 Taking care of family members 3.89 3.84 3.94 .955 3.91 3.87 .395
 Too many chores 3.22 3.10 3.30 1.753 3.15 3.29 −1.198
 Too much work 2.79 2.41 3.07 6.003*** 2.72 2.89 −1.498
 Lack of transportation 2.59 2.65 2.55 -.896 2.59 2.60 -.030
 Lack of information 2.38 2.34 2.41 .711 2.32 2.45 −1.300
 Lack of money 2.68 2.79 2.61 −1560 2.70 2.66 .392
 Too crowded and too noisy 3.06 3.03 3.08 -.385 2.98 3.15 −1.463
 Lack of time 3.63 3.43 3.78 3.105** 3.63 3.64 -.104
 Lack of space/facilities 3.18 3.18 3.18 -.007 3.15 3.23 -.696
Nursing-related constraints .873 3.51 3.44 3.56 1.446 3.42 3.62 −2.514*
 Concern with babies’ health 3.42 3.38 3.44 .506 3.37 3.47 -.846
 Babies too attached to mothers 3.76 3.91 3.65 −2.323* 3.75 3.78 -.265
 No other family members could help with taking care of the babies 3.00 3.10 2.92 −1.345 2.92 3.09 −1.303
 Leisure activities not appropriate for children 3.96 3.94 3.97 .383 3.95 3.97 -.138
 Unfriendly nursing environment in leisure activities place/recreation space 3.87 3.73 3.98 2.232* 3.75 4.04 −2.676**
 Feel guilty to bother other family members to take care of babies 3.80 3.67 3.89 1.970 3.75 3.86 −1.005
 No or insufficient breastfeeding rooms in leisure activities place/recreation space 3.78 3.64 3.89 2.169* 3.64 3.95 −3.033**
 Difficulty accessing breastfeeding rooms 3.78 3.61 3.90 2.489* 2.54 2.90 −2.797**
 Embarrassment being outdoors and in others’ views 2.70 2.65 2.74 .701 2.88 3.14 −3.110**
 Traditional myths from older generation 3.00 2.77 3.17 3.079** 2.86 3.07 −2.015*

Note: 1. * p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.

2. Breastfeeding practice: Breastfeeding directly indicating breastfeeding their babies directly from wet nurse, other practice comprise feeding methods such as bottle feed with expressed milk, alternating between the breast directly and bottle with expressed milk, and directly from breast only before bedtime were combine together as all the others.

Chow and Dong

Chow and Dong BMC Public Health 2013 13:410   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-410

Open Data