Table 4

Multivariate subgroup analyses of associations between various natural space measures and positive emotional well-being (Nā€‰=ā€‰17 249)
Quartiles Total natural space Green space Blue space
RR (95% CI)a RR (95% CI)a RR (95% CI)a
1 1.00 1.00 1.00
2 0.99 (0.94-1.03) 0.98 (0.93-1.03) 1.02 (0.97-1.07)
3 1.05 (1.00-1.10) 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 1.06 (1.01-1.11)
4 1.01 (0.95-1.06) 1.01 (0.96-1.06) 1.04 (0.99-1.09)
P trend 0.22 0.34 0.04
By urban/rural geographic location
Rural area
1 1.00 1.00 1.00
2 0.94 (0.85-1.03) 0.98 (0.87-1.05) 1.01 (0.91-1.11)
3 0.97 (0.88-1.06) 1.03 (0.81-1.06) 0.93 (0.82-1.04)
4 0.94 (0.83-1.05) 1.04 (0.83-1.08) 0.99 (0.91-1.07)
P trend 0.30 0.24 0.58
Small city
1 1.00 1.00 1.00
2 1.11 (1.01-1.20) 1.05 (0.95-1.15) 1.11 (1.02-1.20)
3 1.16 (1.07-1.25) 1.10 (1.01-1.18) 1.15 (1.07-1.24)
4 1.12 (1.03-1.21) 1.07 (0.98-1.15) 1.14 (1.05-1.22)
P trend 0.03 0.11 0.008
Metropolitan area
1 1.00 1.00 1.00
2 0.97 (0.88-1.05) 0.98 (0.87-1.08) 1.01 (0.93-1.09)
3 1.05 (0.96-1.14) 1.03 (0.92-1.13) 1.10 (1.02-1.18)
4 1.03 (0.91-1.14) 1.04 (0.92-1.15) 1.07 (0.96-1.18)
P trend 0.26 0.23 0.02

RR (95% CI), Risk ratio (95% Confidence Intervals).

aAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, family affluence, perceived neighborhood safety, and neighborhood rundown houses as determined in Model 3 of Table 3.

Huynh et al.

Huynh et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:407   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-407

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