Table 4

Cost-benefit analyses of vaccination programs in the general population
First author [Reference] Stray-Pedersen [[25]] White [[26]] Hatzandrieu [[27]] Schoenbaum [[24]]
Country Norway USA USA USA
Year 1982 1985 1994 1976
WB income group High High High High
Comparators 1. Vaccinate infant girls 1. Rubella vaccination 1. Rubella vaccination 1. Vaccinate all 2-yr-olds
2. Vaccinate pubertal girls 2. MMR vaccination 2. MMR vaccination 2. Vaccinate all 6-yr-olds
3. Vaccinate all 12-yr-olds
4. Vaccinate 2-yr-olds and 12-yr-olds
Perspective Societal Societal Societal Societal
Cost components measured Vaccine; immunization; serology; CRS treatment (including special care; indirect costs (lost productivity and premature mortality) Vaccine; immunization; physician visits; hospitalization; supportive care; special schooling; institutionalization; indirect costs (lost wages, lost lifetime earnings due to retardation or death) Vaccine; immunization; physician visits; hospitalization; supportive care; special schooling; institutionalization; indirect costs (lost wages, lost lifetime earnings due to retardation or death) Vaccine; immunization; OP care; hospitalization; CRS treatment and care; indirect costs (lost lifetime earnings)
Method of cost estimation Micro-costing (for vaccination and treatment; expected lifetime earnings (for indirect costs) Micro-costing (for direct costs; expected lifetime earnings (for indirect costs) Micro-costing (for direct costs; expected lifetime earnings (for indirect costs) Micro-costing (for direct costs; expected lifetime earnings (for indirect costs)
Method of benefits estimation Averted costs Averted costs Averted costs Averted costs
Time period for costs and benefits Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime
Discounting (Rate) Yes (7%) Yes (10%) Yes (10%) Yes (6%)
Results—Benefit-cost ratio 1. 5 1. 7.7 1. 11.1 1. 8
2. 11 2. 14.4 2. 21.3 2. 9
3. 27
4. 8
Stated conclusion Vaccination of pubertal girls preferable Routine MMR vaccine program was cost-effective Routine MMR vaccine program was cost-effective Vaccination at 12 years better than vaccination at other ages
Sponsor NR CDC* CDC* NR

*Not explicitly reported but inferred.

WB, World Bank; NR, Not Reported; NA, Not Applicable; CDC, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Babigumira et al.

Babigumira et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:406   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-406

Open Data