Table 5

Segment subscale characteristics: all studies combined (n = 516 segment reliability pairs with complete sidewalk data)
Subscale # items (range) Sample items* and overall subscale descriptions Mean (SD) ICC, % agreement Range of item ICC or Kappa
Positive Subscales
Building Height and Setbacks 3 (0–4) Smallest and largest setbacks and building height 1.31 (.644) .370, 69.0% .522-.764
Building Height: Road Width and Setback Ratio 3 (0–3) Smallest and largest setbacks, building height, and road width .103 (.457) .614, 97.1% n/a
Sidewalk Positive Qualities 3 (2–3) Sidewalk presence and width 2.23 (.419) .555, 84.6% .489-1.00
Buffers 2 (0–2) Buffer presence and width .826 (.941) .912, 93.0% .882-.919
Bicycle Infrastructure 2 (0–3) Marked bicycle lane, signage .200 (.706) .855, 95.4% .676-.791
Building Aesthetics and Design 4 (0–7) Street-level windows, building colors and materials 3.85 (1.81) .705, 38.0% .549 - .629
Trees 3 (0–5) Number and spacing of trees, percent of sidewalk shaded 2.15 (2.08) .744, 51.2% .540-.737
Informal Path (single item) 1 (0–1) Is there an informal path (shortcut) which connects to something else? n/a .554 (K), 91.1% n/a
Overall Positive 7 subscales plus 1 item (3–22) Sum of subscales: building height and setbacks, sidewalk positive qualities, buffers, bike infrastructure, building aesthetics and design, trees, plus item: cul-de-sac connectivity 10.78 (3.29) .752, 25.4% See above
Negative Subscales
Sidewalk Negative Qualities 5 (0–4) Trip hazards, obstructions in the sidewalk 1.09 (1.02) .675, 55.5% .494-.796
Sidewalk Steepness (children/teens) 3 (0–5) Slope, cross-slope (steeper slope acceptable for children) 1.09 (1.01) .596, 60.1% .503- .775
Sidewalk Steepness (seniors) 3 (0–7) Slope, cross-slope (less steep slope acceptable for seniors) 2.18 (1.64) .633, 42.4% .502- .746
Overall Negative Subscale (Child/Teen) 2 subscales (0–7) Sum of subscales: Sidewalk negative qualities, sidewalk steepness (children/teens), building height: road width and setback ratio, negative street design/width 2.18 (1.63) .693, 42.4% See above
Overall Negative Subscale (Senior) 2 subscales (0–9) Sum of subscales: Sidewalk negative qualities, sidewalk steepness (seniors), building height: road width and setback ratio, negative street design/width 3.27 (2.01) .689, 33.4% See above
Overall Subscales
Overall Segments Score (Child/Teen) 2 (−1 -19) Overall Positive – Overall Negative subscales (child/teen) 8.58 (3.43) .753, 24.0% See above
Overall Segments Score (Senior) 2 (−2 -19) Overall Positive – Overall Negative subscales (senior) 7.49 (3.66) .758, 22.8% See above

*All item reliabilities can be found at: http://sallis.ucsd.edu webcite.

Millstein et al.

Millstein et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:403   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-403

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