Table 2

Variables measured in the HELIUS questionnaire
Theme Explanatory factors Outcomes
General Demographic factors: General health, chronic conditions, quality of life (SF-12), functional limitations
Sex, age, marital status, household composition
Country of birth of respondent and his/her (grand)parents
Explanatory mechanisms that link ethnicity to health:
Migration history, educational level and occupational status, religion, cultural distance (acculturation), ethnic identity, perceived discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale)
Proximal risk factors:
- Health-related behaviour: Smoking, alcohol intake, cannabis use, physical activity, weight perception, fruit intake, vegetarian diet, dietary pattern (breakfast, lunch, evening meal), coffee/tea intake, sugary drinks intake
- Health care use and related factors: Ability to understand medical information (health literacy), compliance with medication, perceived quality of GP, health care use (GP, specialists, psychological care, alternative health care), health care use in other countries
- Working conditions: physical activity at work, work-related recovery opportunities
Cardiovascular health Proximal risk factors: Angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, intermittent claudication (Rose Questionnaire), heart failure, cerebrovascular events
History of high blood pressure/hypercholesterolaemia/diabetes, family history of high blood pressure/hypercholesterolaemia/diabetes/cardiovascular disease/sudden death, fainting history, age of menarche, age of menopause
Mental health Proximal risk factors: Depressive disorders (PHQ-9), nicotine use-related disorder (Fagerström), alcohol use-related disorder (AUDIT), cannabis use-related disorder (CUDIT)
perceived social support (DES subscale), childhood trauma, parental psychiatric history, mastery (Pearlin-Schooler Mastery Scale), neuroticism and extraversion (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), stressful life events
Infectious diseases Proximal risk factors: History and presence of allergy, asthma, rhinitis, food allergy, urogenital infections
Family history of allergy/asthma, travel behaviour (visited other countries), use of self-tests, blood transfusions, use of drugs by injection, surgery in other countries, sexual behaviour, use of contraceptives (women), human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination (women), circumcision (men)

Stronks et al.

Stronks et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:402   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-402

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