Table 2

Univariate analysis for the association between the selected explanatory factors and infant mortality, Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, March, 2012
Variable Cases Controls crude OR 95% CI P-value
(n=127) (n=127)
Number (%) Number (%)
Socio-economic factors
Mother’s educational levels
Literate 12(9.4) 25(19.7) 1
Illiterate 115(90.6) 102(80.3) 2.62 1.16-5.92 0.02*
Residence
Urban 13(10.2) 26(20.5) 1
Rural 114(89.8) 101(79.5) 2.86 1.21-6.75 0.017*
Father’s Educational levels
Literate 31(24.4) 39(30.7) 1
Illiterate 96(75.6) 88(69.3) 1.4 0.79-2.22 0.2
Monthly Income
Poor 90(70.9) 67(52.8) 2.35 1.33-4.14 0.003*
Satisfied basic need 57(29.1) 60(47.2) 1
Occupation of mother
Housewife 92(72.4) 95(74.8)
Farmer/Merchant 35(27.6) 32(25.2) 1.17 0.62-2.19 0.631
Family size
≤ 5 43(33.9) 65(51.2) 1
>5 84(66.1) 62(48.8) 2.10 1.23- 3.58 0.005*
Radio possession
Yes 40(31.5) 62(48.8) 1
No 87(68.5) 65(51.2) 2.38 1.32- 4.26 0.02*
Age of mother at birth the child
<20 10(7.9) 9(7.1) 1.18 0.45-3.06 0.741
20-34 97(76.4) 107(84.3) 1
≥35 20(15.7) 11(8.7) 2.14 0.92-4.96 0.077
Reproductive health and related factors
Age at marriage
< 18 78(61.4) 69(54.3) 1
≥ 18 49(38.6) 58(45.7) 1.32 0.80-2.16 0.267
Age at first birth
< 20 93(73.2) 93(73.2) 1
≥ 20 34(26.8) 34(34.8) 1 0.58-1.70 1.0
Antenatal care follow-up
Yes 32(25.2) 58(45.7) 1
No 95(74.8) 69(54.3) 2.62 1.47-4.66 0.001£
Place of delivery
Home 121(95.0) 120(94.5) 1
Health Institution 6(5.0) 7(5.5) 0.86 0.28-2.55 0.782
Child and nutrition related factors
Sex of the infant
Male 74(58.3) 73(57.5) 1
Female 53(41.7) 54(42.5) 0.9 0.57-1.62 0.894
Immunization**
Yes 23(32.7) 51(71.8) 1
No 48(67.8) 20(28.2) 4.11 1.98 -8.52 0.001£
Size of child at birth
Average and above 106(83.5) 117(92.1) 1
Small 21(16.5) 10(7.9) 2.57 1.07-6.16 0.028
Birth order and interval
Order 2–4 & Interval ≥2 yrs 33(26.0) 62(48.8) 1
Order =1 10(7.9) 10(7.9) 1.55 0.57-4.18 0.382
Order 2–4 & Interval < 2 yrs 10(7.9) 4(3.1) 5.28 1.48-18.81 0.010*
Order ≥ 5 & Interval ≥2 yrs 57(44.9) 43(33.9) 2.49 1.35-4.60 0.002*
Order ≥ 5 & Interval < 2 yrs 17(13.4) 8(6.3) 4.23 1.49-11.95 0.006*
Complementary feeding**
At 6 months 25(43.9) 85(66.9) 1
Less than 6 months 32(56.1) 42(33.1) 6.67 1.98-22.44 0.001£
Household environmental factors and hygiene
Latrine Availability
Available 102(80.3) 116(91.3) 1
Not available 25(19.7) 11(8.7) 2.56 1.18-5.52 0.013*
Water source
Safe 60(47.3) 72(58.7) 1
unsafe 67(52.7) 55(41.3) 1.57 0.91-2.72 0.105
Roof type
Thatched 100(78.7) 83(65.4) 1
CIS 27(21.3) 44(34.6) 0.49 0.27-0.88 0.018*
Availability of window
Available 25(19.7) 44(34.6) 1
Not available 102(80.3) 83(65.4) 2.19 1.21-3.95 0.010*
Number of rooms of house
≥2 97(76.4) 102(80.3) 1
< 2 30(23.6) 25(19.7) 1.46 0.68-3.13 0.335
Soap use for hand washing@
Yes 47(37.0) 74(58.3) 1
No 80(63.0) 53(41.7) 2.58 1.47-4.52 0.001*
Behavioral Factors
Knowledge
Satisfactory 46(36.2) 52(59.1) 1
Not satisfactory 81(63.8) 75(40.9) 1.26 0.73-2.17 0.406
Perceived Susceptibility
Positive 72(56.7) 79(62.2) 1
Negative 55(43.3) 48(37.8) 1.28 0.75-2.15 0.353
Perceived Severity
Positive 73(57.5) 80(63.0) 1
Negative 54(42.5) 47(37.0) 1.31 0.75-2.16 0.327
Perceived Benefits
Positive 64(50.4) 83(65.4) 1
Negative 63(49.6) 44(34.6) 2.46 1.29-4.69 0.004£
Perceived Barriers
Positive 50(39.4) 62(48.8) 1
Negative 77(60.6) 65(51.2) 1.55 0.90-2.64 0.108
Practice
Good 45(36.0) 81(63.28) 1
Poor 80(64.0) 46(36.2) 3.83 2.03-7.24 0.001£

*P <0.05 ** the total may not be equal to254, £P<0.001 CIS- Corrugated Iron sheet.

@ Soap use for hand washing before feeding child.

Dube et al.

Dube et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:401   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-401

Open Data