Table 3

Univariate logistic regression analyses of factors associated with social problems, infectious diseases, psychological problems and all three of these outcomes (N = 2526)
Characteristics Social problems1 Infectious diseases2 Psychological problems3 Social problems1, infectious diseases2, and psychological problems3
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Age (in years) 1.07 (1.06–1.09)* 1.10 (1.09–1.11)* 1.06 (1.05–1.07)* 1.07 (1.06–1.08)*
Male gender 1.50 (1.27–1.77)* 1.26 (1.04–1.52)* 0.75 (0.62–0.90)* 1.23 (0.98–1.55)
Married or cohabiting 1.46 (1.07–1.99)* 1.76 (1.29–2.41)* 1.22 (0.89–1.68) 1.31 (0.90–1.91)
≥ High school education 0.97 (0.80–1.18) 0.98 (0.79–1.21) 1.58 (1.27–1.95)* 0.89 (0.69–1.14)
Having children under 18 years 1.95 (1.59–2.39)* 2.74 (2.25–3.33)* 1.57 (1.26–1.94)* 2.05 (1.64–2.58)*
Self-referral to treatment 2.82 (2.38–3.34)* 2.17 (1.80–2.61)* 2.08 (1.75–2.48)* 2.19 (1.75–2.73)*
Use of alcohol as primary drugsa 0.39 (0.32–0.46)* 0.48 (0.38–0.60)* 0.54 (0.45– 0.65)* 0.51 (0.39–0.67)*
Use of cannabis as primary drugsa 0.38 (0.31–0.48)* 0.16 (0.10–0.24)* 0.51 (0.41–0.63)* 0.18 (0.10–0.30)*
Use of prescription medicines as primary drugsa 1.05 (0.60–1.81) 0.47 (0.22–0.99)* 1.21 (0.67 – 2.18) 0.73 (0.33–1.62)
Use of opiates as primary drugsa 3.03 (2.50–3.68)* 2.60 (2.17–3.13)* 1.72 (1.42–2.07)* 2.45 (1.97–3.03)*
Use of stimulants as primary drugsa 1.72 (1.41–2.10)* 1.62 (1.33–1.98)* 1.82 (1.47–2.24)* 1.40 (1.11–1.77)*
Use of other drugs as primary drugsa 0.99 (0.53– 1.83) 0.45 (0.19–1.06) 1.03 (0.54–1.95) 0.37 (0.12–1.21)

* P ≤ 0.05. a Other drugs – including hallucinogens, solvents/inhalants, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and anabolic steroids. OR – odds ratio. CI – confidence interval. 1Homelessness or unemployment or threats of violence. 2HIV or hepatitis A or hepatitis B or hepatitis C. 3Depressive symptoms or psychological symptoms or suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts.

Onyeka et al.

Onyeka et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:380   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-380

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