Table 4

Univariate analysis of characteristics associated with VL-malaria co-infections, Sudan (2005-2010)
Variable Cases n (%) Controls n (%) Crude Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval
Gender 404 870
Male 212 (52.5) 501 (57.6) 1
Female 192 (47.5) 369 (42.4) 1.23 0.97-1.56*
Age 400 853
<5 years 120 (30.0) 176 (20.6) 1.53 1.05-2.24*
5-9 years 77 (19.3) 180 (21.1) 0.96 0.64-1.44
10-19 years 92 (23.0) 225 (26.4) 0.92 0.62-1.35
20-29 years 50 (12.5) 135 (15.8) 0.83 0.53-1.30
≥30 years 61 (15.3) 137 (16.1) 1
Treatment center 404 882
Gedarif Teaching Hospital 18 (4.4) 450 (51.0) 1
Tabarakallah Hospital 84 (20.8) 237 (26.9) 8.86 5.20-15.10*
Al`Azaza kala-azar Clinic 302 (74.8) 195 (22.1) 38.72 23.38-64.11*
Season 398 863
Dry season 232 (58.3) 528 (61.2) 1
Wet season 166 (41.7) 335 (38.8) 1.13 0.89-1.44
Previous anti-leishmanial treatment 389 860
No 373 (95.9) 806 (93.7) 1
Yes 16 (4.1) 54 (6.3) 0.64 0.36-1.13
Previous anti-malarial treatment 396 864
No 277 (70.0) 604 (69.9) 1
Yes 119 (30.0) 260 (30.1) 1.00 0.77-1.29
Malnutrition 322 575
None 262 (81.4) 497 (86.4) 1
Mild 17 (5.3) 25 (4.3) 1.29 0.68-2.43
Moderate 29 (9.0) 41 (7.1) 1.34 0.82-2.21
Severe 14 (4.4) 12 (2.1) 2.21 1.01-4.85*
Anemia degree on admission 374 725
Median Hb (inter-quartile range) 7.0 (6.5-8.0) 8.0 (7.0-9.0)
None-mild (Hb ≥7.3 g/dl) 182 (48.7) 445 (61.4) 1
Moderate (Hb 5.3-7.2 g/dl) 149 (39.8) 210 (29.0) 1.73 1.32-2.28*
Severe (Hb <5.3 g/dl) 43 (11.5) 70 (9.7) 1.50 0.99-2.28*
Spleen size 238 563
Median (inter-quartile range) 4.0 (2.0-6.0) 5.0 (2.0-8.0)
0-3 cm 94 (39.5) 150 (26.6) 1
4-5 cm 79 (33.2) 141 (25.0) 0.89 0.61-1.30
≥6 cm 65 (27.3) 272 (48.3) 0.38 0.26-0.55*
Infection intensity in lymph node aspirate 377 447
+1 339 (89.9) 418 (93.5) 1
+2 24 (6.4) 20 (4.5) 1.48 0.80-2.72
+3 11 (2.9) 8 (1.8) 1.70 0.67-4.26
+4 3 (0.8) 1 (0.2) 3.70 0.38-35.72
Infection intensity in bone marrow aspirate 16 248
+1 15 (93.8) 244 (98.4) 1
+2 1 (6.2) 4 (1.6) 4.07 0.43-38.68
Symptoms 404 880
Hepatomegaly 19 (4.7) 128 (14.5) 0.29 0.18-0.48*
Jaundice 19 (4.7) 15 (1.7) 2.85 1.43-5.66*
Weight loss 278 (68.8) 370 (42.0) 3.04 2.37-3.90*

*P-value <0.10 based on Person Chi-square tests

van den Bogaart et al.

van den Bogaart et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:332   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-332

Open Data