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Open Access Study protocol

Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

Rena R Wing*, Deborah Tate, Mark Espeland, Amy Gorin, Jessica Gokee LaRose, Erica Ferguson Robichaud, Karen Erickson, Letitia Perdue, Judy Bahnson and Cora E Lewis

Author affiliations

The Miriam Hospital/Brown University, 196 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA

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Citation and License

BMC Public Health 2013, 13:300  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-300

Published: 4 April 2013

Abstract

Background

Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (

    S
tudy of
    N
ovel
    A
pproaches to Weight Gain
    P
revention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains.

Methods/Design

SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18–35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5–10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow-up; secondary outcomes include diet and physical activity behaviors, psychosocial measures, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Discussion

SNAP is unique in its focus on weight gain prevention in young adulthood. The trial will provide important information about whether either or both of these novel interventions are effective in preventing weight gain.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01183689

Keywords:
Weight gain prevention; Young adults; Obesity; Self-regulation; Self-weighing