Table 3

Multinomial regression examining the relationship between psychological distress and sociodemographic and empowerment characteristics; women in relationships (N = 2,849)
OR (95% CI)
Well/Mild Moderate Severe
Age 1.00 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
Marital status
  Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Married 1.00 0.87 (0.47, 1.63) 0.50 (0.22, 1.17)
  Formerly married 1.00 1.24 (0.43, 3.59) 0.84 (0.26, 2.76)
Education
  None 1.00 2.05 (1.06, 3.94)* 3.39 (1.17, 9.81)*
  Primary or less 1.00 1.54 (0.77, 3.09) 2.12 (0.71, 6.34)
  Middle/JSS 1.00 1.31 (0.71, 2.43) 1.20 (0.41, 3.50)
  Secondary and above 1.00 1.00 1.00
Residential location
  Urban 1.00 1.21 (0.85, 1.72) 1.60 (1.06, 2.39)*
  Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wealth index
  First quintile 1.00 1.77 (1.01, 3.11)* 1.33 (0.62, 2.86)
  Second 1.00 2.13 (1.26, 3.60)** 1.59 (0.76, 3.31)
  Third 1.00 1.22 (0.68, 2.20) 1.33 (0.55, 3.23)
  Fourth 1.00 1.95 (1.14, 3.34)* 1.54 (0.74, 3.20)
  Fifth 1.00 1.00 1.00
Region
  Western 1.00 1.54 (0.72, 3.28) 2.67 (0.66, 10.89)
  Central 1.00 0.46 (0.20, 1.06) 2.08 (0.52, 8.41)
  Gt. Accra 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Volta 1.00 1.31 (0.63, 2.73) 1.93 (0.46, 8.21)
  Eastern 1.00 1.41 (0.66, 3.00) 6.09 (1.60, 23.24)**
  Ashanti 1.00 0.45 (0.18, 1.12) 2.06 (0.49, 8.69)
  Brong Ahafo 1.00 1.06 (0.43, 2.64) 1.89 (0.38, 9.29)
  Northern 1.00 1.29 (0.58, 2.89) 2.78 (0.71, 10.87)
  Upper East 1.00 1.55 (0.65, 3.73) 2.62 (0.62, 11.06)
  Upper West 1.00 0.71 (0.28, 1.79) 0.75 (0.15, 3.67)
Self-rated health
  Very healthy 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Somewhat healthy 1.00 1.54 (1.10, 2.16)* 2.57 (1.65, 4.00)**
  Unhealthy 1.00 2.38 (1.51, 3.73)** 2.10 (1.22, 3.62)**
Religion
  Christian 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Muslim 1.00 0.82 (0.53, 1.26) 1.04 (0.56, 1.94)
  Traditional 1.00 1.16 (0.71, 1.90) 0.79 (0.40, 1.58)
  No religion 1.00 1.33 (0.74, 2.40) 1.29 (0.64, 2.62)
Important decisions should be made only by the men in the family 1.00 1.39 (0.99, 1.94) 1.48 (0.96, 2.28)
A wife does not have a right to express her opinion 1.00 1.79 (1.24, 2.58)** 1.68 (0.96, 2.93)
A wife should tolerate being beaten in order to keep the family together 1.00 1.63 (1.18, 2.25)** 2.61 (1.80, 3.78)**
Partner control (0–4) 1.00 1.55 (1.28, 1.87)** 1.82 (1.43, 2.32)**
Emotional abuse 1.00 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) 0.77 (0.49, 1.20)
Physical abuse 1.00 0.88 (0.45, 1.74) 2.22 (1.10, 4.49)*

**p < 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05.

Sipsma et al.

Sipsma et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:288   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-288

Open Data