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Open Access Research article

Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh

Tapash Roy15*, Claire Anderson1, Catrin Evans2, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman34 and Mosiur Rahman5

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Social Research in Medicines and Health and School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

2 School of Nursing, Midwifery and Physiotherapy, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

3 Department of Statistical Sciences, University College London, London, UK

4 Institute of Statistical Research and Training, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

5 BRAC Health, Nutrition and Population Programme, BRAC Centre (16th Floor), 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh

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BMC Public Health 2013, 13:240  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-240

Published: 19 March 2013



The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh.


This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18–35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented.


The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p < 0.001). The 2-week repeatability assessed by the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient was 0.75.


The results indicated that Bengali version of the scale have good metric properties for assessing attitudes toward condom use. Validated scale is a short, simple and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards condom use in vulnerable populations like current study sample. This culturally-customized scale can be used to monitor the progress of condom uptake and promotion activities in Bangladesh or similar settings.

Condom attitudes; Scale development; Vulnerable populations; Bangladesh