Table 4

The association between empowerment, personal and social transformation, and HIV program outcome variables, adjusted for background characteristics for a sample of 1750 female sex workers in south India
Indicators Social transformation variables Personal transformation variables HIV program outcome variables
Autonomy Violence or abuse by more powerful groups Self-efficacy for condom use with regular partner Self-efficacy for condom use with clients Self-efficacy for service utilization Condom use at last sex with regular client Frequency of condom use with regular clients Condom use at last sex with regular partner Frequency of condom use with regular partner Number of times in last 6 months visited health clinic for health problems
All districts Power within 0.93 0.96 1.26‡ 0.93 2.48‡ 0.92 0.96 1.03 1.16 1.16*
Power with 1.08 1.13 1.03 1.31‡ 1.40‡ 1.92‡ 1.95‡ 1.17* 1.20* 0.96
Power over 1.07 1.06 1.07 0.97 1.01 0.61* 0.84 1.07 1.07 0.99
Belgaum Gulbarga & Gadag (high intensity) Power within 0.87 0.89 1.27* 0.83 3.13‡ 0.92 1.14 1.23 1.54** 1.05
Power with 1.22* 1.34* 0.92 1.34** 1.72‡ 2.56‡ 2.27‡ 1.09 1.06 1.00
Power over 1.06 1.00 1.05 0.95 1.00 0.89 1.24 0.97 0.95 0.92
Dharwad & Solapur (low intensity) Power within 1.04 1.02 1.28* 1.22 1.70‡ 0.90 0.87 1.00 1.09 1.26*
Power with 1.01 1.04 1.08 1.26* 1.19 1.65** 1.80‡ 1.20 1.21 1.04
Power over 1.14 1.17 1.06 1.25 0.98 0.38** 0.55** 1.19 1.22 1.08

Odd Ratios and p-values for each Empowerment domain were obtained using binary logistic regression for each outcome variable with all significant socio-demographic and sex work practice variables as covariates.

“Power within” represents a sense of individual self-esteem and confidence, “power with” reflects collective identity and solidarity, and “power over resources” reflects access to social entitlements.

* = p < .05, ** = p < .01, ‡ = p < .001.

Blanchard et al.

Blanchard et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:234   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-234

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