|The association between empowerment, personal and social transformation, and HIV program outcome variables, adjusted for background characteristics for a sample of 1750 female sex workers in south India|
|Indicators||Social transformation variables||Personal transformation variables||HIV program outcome variables|
|Autonomy||Violence or abuse by more powerful groups||Self-efficacy for condom use with regular partner||Self-efficacy for condom use with clients||Self-efficacy for service utilization||Condom use at last sex with regular client||Frequency of condom use with regular clients||Condom use at last sex with regular partner||Frequency of condom use with regular partner||Number of times in last 6 months visited health clinic for health problems|
|All districts||Power within||0.93||0.96||1.26‡||0.93||2.48‡||0.92||0.96||1.03||1.16||1.16*|
|Belgaum Gulbarga & Gadag (high intensity)||Power within||0.87||0.89||1.27*||0.83||3.13‡||0.92||1.14||1.23||1.54**||1.05|
|Dharwad & Solapur (low intensity)||Power within||1.04||1.02||1.28*||1.22||1.70‡||0.90||0.87||1.00||1.09||1.26*|
Odd Ratios and p-values for each Empowerment domain were obtained using binary logistic regression for each outcome variable with all significant socio-demographic and sex work practice variables as covariates.
“Power within” represents a sense of individual self-esteem and confidence, “power with” reflects collective identity and solidarity, and “power over resources” reflects access to social entitlements.
* = p < .05, ** = p < .01, ‡ = p < .001.
Blanchard et al.
Blanchard et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:234 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-234