Table 3

Adjusted empowerment means for socio-demographic, sex work and program variables for a sample of 1750 female sex workers in south India
Characteristic All districts Belgaum Gulbarga and & Gadag (high intensity) Dharwad and & Solapur (low intensity)
Power within Power with Power over Power within Power with Power over Power within Power with Power over
Age
18-21 (ref) -.15 -.08 -.61 .42 .11 -.46 -.97 -.47 -.90
22-25 -.09 -.20 -.56 ‡ .40 .002 -.44 -.76 -.55 -.80
26-30 -.10 -.07 -.18 ‡ .27 .08 -.03 ** -.56 * -.33 -.46 *
31-35 -.04 -.14 .12 ‡ .32 .03 .30 ‡ -.52 * -.38 -.22 **
36 + .03 -.03 .39 ‡ .36 .18 .60 ‡ -.40 * -.36 .04 ‡
District
Belgaum (ref) .28 .26 .17 .40 .20 .16
Gulbarga .06‡ .11 -.13 ‡ .15‡ .05 ‡ -.14 **
Gadag .42‡ .04 -.01‡ .51 ** -.01** -.03 ‡
Dharwad -.15‡ -.05 -.19 ‡ -.16 .06 -.20
Solapur -.96‡ -.87 -.68 ‡ −1.13 ‡ -.89 ‡ -.73 ‡
Type of sex work
Street based (ref) -.04 -.16 -.20 .32 .14 -.02 -.61 -.58 -.52
Home -.07** -.18 -.16 .17 -.03 ** -.03 -.55 -.50 -.45
Contacted by phone -.18 -.08 -.17 .18 ** .15 -.02 -.75 -.35 * -.43
Brothel, vehicle, bar/nightcluba. .02 .01 -.14 .74 ‡ .07 * .05 -.66 -.25 * -.48
Client no. past 7 working days
< 5 (ref) -.07 -.18 -.10 .44 .03 .07 -.81 -.53 -.41
5+ -.06 -.03* -.23 .26 * .13 * -.08 -.47 ** -.30 -.52
Total no. of sexual partners past 7 working days
<5 (ref) .04 -.20 -.02 .39 .15 -.05 -.40 -.33 -.48
5+ -.18** -.17 -.19** .31 .01 .04 -.88 ‡ -.51 -.46
Member of CBO
No (ref) -.06 -.18 -.16 .34 .04 -.02 -.64 -.54 -.48
Yes -.07 -.03** -.17 .36 .12 .01 -.65 -.30 ** -.45
Time since first program contact
Less than 6 months (ref) -.30 -.42 -.12 .19 -.16 -.06 -.69 -.73 -.41
6-12 months ago -.10* -.15** -.19 .33 .07 -.0003 -.62 -.44 ** -.51
1-2 years ago .02‡ .04 -.20 .38 .14 .04 -.71 -.26 ‡ -.55
>2 years ago .11‡ .12 -.14 .50 * .27 * .01 -.55 -.26 ‡ -.40
Number of times contacted by peer educator in past 6 months
<10 (ref) -.19 -.37 -.20 .14 -.11 .02 -.53 -.68 -.51
10-14 -.20 -.20** -.11 .13 .02 -.09 -.73 -.66 -.28 **
15-19 -.06* -.05 -.14 .35 * .15 * .05 -.61 -.61 -.50
20-24 .02** .02 -.08 .42 ** .20 ** .06 -.34 -.42 * -.30 *
25-29 -.09 -.07** -.21 .38 * -.08 .04 -.61 -.73 -.75
30 + .12‡ .05 -.24 .69 ‡ .29 ‡ -.10 -.60 -.75 -.47

Adjusted means and p-values obtained from a generalized linear model analysis for each predictor variable with the Empowerment variables as the outcomes and all significant socio-economic and sex-work practice variables.

“Power within” represents a sense of individual self-esteem and confidence, “power with” reflects collective identity and solidarity, and “power over resources” reflects access to social entitlements.

a. The sex-work typology categories “brothel, vehicle, bar and night-club” were combined to create categories with more equal n-values. Age was split into categories based on equally sized quintiles.

* = p < .05, ** = p < .01, ‡ = p < .001.

Blanchard et al.

Blanchard et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:234   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-234

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