Table 1

Characteristics of selected papers
1stAuthor/Year [Citations] Country Settings Urban/Rural Sample (sub-group) Study type Aim
Castle, 2003 [28] Mali Urban Men & women 20–34 yrs; Young people 17–24 yrs Qualitative To assess attitude towards HIV with a view to setting up VCT services.
Pool, 2001 [29] Uganda Rural Women antenatal care attendees Qualitative To explore attitudes to VCT among women attending antenatal care.
Daftary, 2007 [30] South Africa Urban In-patient with TB Qualitative To explore decision making processes for HIV testing and disclosure by TB patients.
Maman, 2001 [31] Tanzania Urban Men, women, Couples Qualitative

To explore individual, relational and

environmental factors influencing HIV testing decision & disclosure of status to partners.

Mabunda, 2006 [32] South Africa Rural Men and women ≥ 18yrs Qualitative To identify themes related to VCT services in rural South Africa.
Angotti, 2009 [33] Malawi Rural Married women & men 15–49 yrs; Married & unmarried adolescents 15–24 yrs Qualitative To examine the acceptability of HIV testing in 3 rural districts.
MacPhail, 2008 [34] South Africa Urban Adolescents 12–24 yrs; parent Qualitative To establish the perceptions of and needs for VCT among young people.
Mlay, 2008 [35] Tanzania Urban Women 18–49 yrs; Men 20–75 yrs Qualitative To gain insight into the views of counsellors men and women on VCT for couples.
Izugbara, 2009 [36] Malawi & Uganda Rural/Urban Male youths 14–19 yrs Qualitative To offer youth-centred perspectives & masculinity as they relate to HIV services, including VCT.
Grant, 2008 [37] Zambia Urban People living with HIV Qualitative To examine what factors affect a person’s decision to seek testing and then start and stop treatment.
Denison, 2008 [38] Zambia Urban Adolescents 16–19 yrs Qualitative Explore how adolescents involve their families, friends, sex partner about VCT & disclosure of status.
Oshi, 2007 [39] Nigeria Urban University Students Qualitative To investigate if self-perception of risk of HIV infection causes Nigeria youths to reduce risky sexual behaviour & seek VCT.
Meiberg, 2008 [40] South Africa Urban University Students Qualitative To identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling & testing.
Groves, 2010 [41] South Africa Urban Women at antenatal clinic Qualitative To explore women’s experiences with HIV testing & the consent process in a public antenatal clinic.
Råssjö, 2009 [42] Uganda Urban Young men & women Qualitative Attitude to VCT among young men & women in a slum area of Kampala, Uganda.
Chirawu, 2010 [43] Zimbabwe Rural Men and women ≥ 18yrs Mixed methods To examine the acceptability & feasibility of providing client-initiated VCT in health facilities & research-initiated VCT in a non-clinic setting.
De Paoli, 2004 [44] Tanzania Rural Women at antenatal clinic Mixed methods To identify factors associated with pregnant women’s willingness to accept VCT.
Ayenew, 2010 [45] Ethiopia Not stated Patient with TB; Nurse counsellors Mixed methods To assess predictors of HIV testing among TB patients.
Namakhoma, 2010 [46] Malawi Urban & Rural Health Workers Mixed methods To explore the enablers and access barriers to HIV-VCT & ART by health workers in Malawi.
Urassa, 2005 [47] Tanzania Not Stated Women 15–45 yrs old Mixed methods To identify risk factors for preferring to avoid HIV testing among women attending antenatal care.
Obermeyer, 2009 [48] Burkina Faso Urban & rural Men & women Mixed methods To investigate the utilization of services around HIV testing.
Bhagwanjee, 2008 [49] South Africa Not stated Mine employees Qualitative To understand users’ perceptions of VCT & HIV treatment services offered by a mining company.
Luginaah, 2005 [50] Ghana Not stated Pastors, Marriage counsellors, men & women Qualitative To examine efforts by some men & women churches in Ghana to reduce the spread of HIV through HIV-VCT.
Taegtmeyer, 2006 [51] Kenya Urban & rural Men & women Mixed methods To better understand the reasons behind gender differences in Kenyan VCT sites.
Larson, 2010 [52] Uganda Urban Men Qualitative To explore men’s views on and experiences of couple HIV testing during antenatal care.
Varga, 2008 [53] South Africa Urban & rural adolescent mothers 15–19 yrs old Qualitative To examine barriers to HIV testing uptake & participation in PMTCT services.
Sherr, 2003 [54] South Africa Urban & rural Health staff & women Qualitative To establish the attitude of clinic staff & pregnant women to routine HIV testing & counselling.
Simpson, 2010 [55] Zambia Urban & rural Cohort of school boys Qualitative To describe masculinity, religious ideas & response to VCT among a cohort of catholic boys.
Nuwaha, 2002 [56] Tanzania Urban & rural Men & women Mixed methods To understand factors influencing choice of VCT.
Theuring, 2009 [57] Tanzania Rural Men of reproductive age Mixed methods To assess male attitude regarding partner involvement in ANC and PMTCT services.
Mbonye, 2010 [58] Uganda Rural Women, Men & adolescents Local leaders & health workers Mixed methods To understand care-seeking practices and barriers to PMCT services.
Levy, 2009 [59] Malawi Urban HIV-positive women; PMTCT programme managers; policy makers; health workers Qualitative To examine women’s decisions about HIV testing & experiences of PMTCT & HIV-related care.
Bwambale, 2008 [60] Uganda Rural Men & women aged ≥18 years; CHWs; NGO health workers Mixed methods To determine the prevalence and factors associated with VCT use amongst men.
Frank, 2009 [61] Zambia Rural Women and men with HIV; village leaders; health workers Qualitative To determine if community structures and livelihood strategies were changing to mitigate the impact of the HIV epidemic.
Larson, 2012 [62] Uganda Rural Pregnant women at ANC Qualitative To explore pregnant women experiences of opt-out HIV testing.
Dye, 2011 [63] Kenya Rural Men & women in the community Qualitative To ascertain motivational & experiential dimensions of participation in rapid integrated prevention campaigns.
Roura, 2009 [64] Tanzania Rural Community leaders, ART users, Health workers Qualitative To investigate the effects of ART scale up on stigma & HIV testing in rural Tanzania.
Day, 2003 [65] South Africa Urban & rural Mine workers Mixed methods To identify the attitude influencing uptake of VCT among Gold mine workers in South Africa.
Phakathi, 2011 [66] South Africa Rural Community members Qualitative To examine the influence of ART on willingness to test for HIV in a rural community.
Skovdal, 2011 [67] Zimbabwe Rural ART users, Health workers, care givers of children on ART Qualitative To examine how local construction of masculinity impact on men’s use of HIV services.
Njozing, 2010 [68] Cameroon Not stated TB Patients Qualitative To explore the barriers and barriers to HIV testing among TB patients.
Jürgensen 2012 [69] Zambia Urban & rural Community members & VCT counsellors Qualitative To explore local meaning attached client initiated HIV testing in rural & urban setting of Zambia.

Musheke et al.

Musheke et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:220   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-220

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