Table 3

Presence of alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs in relation to sex among drowning deaths in Sweden (1992–2009)
Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%)
Blood alcohol
Negative* 1756 (58) 965 (72) 2721/4377 (62)
Positive 1285 (42) 371 (28) 1656/4377 (38)
BAC (g/l)
0.2-0.4 111 (9) 46 (12) 157 (9)
0.5-0.9 116 (9) 58 (16) 174 (11)
1.0–1.4 137 (11) 53 (14) 190 (11)
1.5–1.9 244 (19) 71 (19) 315 (19)
2.0–2.4 273 (21) 55 (15) 328 (20)
2.5–2.9 254 (20) 54 (14) 308 (19)
3.0–3.4 103 (8) 19 (5) 122 (7)
≥3.5 47 (4) 15 (4) 62 (4)
Not tested 287/3041 (9) 151/1336 (11) 435/4812 (9)
Pharmaceutical
Negative 1949/2863 (68) 477/1318 (36) 2426/4181 (58)
Positive 914/2863 (32) 841/1318 (64) 1755/4181 (42)
Benzodiazepines 384/2863 (13) 507/1318 (38) 891/4181 (21)
Opiates 241/2863 (8) 229/1318 (17) 470/4181 (11)
Antidepressant 410/2863 (14) 452/1318 (34) 612/4181 (15)
Neuroleptica 173/2863 (6) 165/1318 (13) 338/4181 (8)
Antiepileptic 53/2863 (2) 28/1318 (2) 81/4181 (2)
Not tested 462/3325 (14) 169/1487 (11) 631/4812 (13)
Illicit drugs
Negative 577/650 (89) 195/204 (96) 772/854 (90)
Positive 73/650 (11) 9/204 (4) 82/854 (10)
Not tested 2675/3325 (80) 1283/1487 (86) 3958/4812 (82)

* BAC below < 0.2 ‰ was considered to be negative since alcohol level can raise due to decomposition process.

Ahlm et al.

Ahlm et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:216   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-216

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