Table 2

Crude odds ratio for slower usual and slower fast gait speeds (n=385)
Variables Usual gait speed Fast gait speed
OR (95% IC) p OR (95% IC) p
Demographics
Female 1.29 (0.75-2.22) 0.359 2.12 (1.10-4.09) 0.024‡
Age group (years)
70-74 (ref 65–69) 1.07 (0.53-2.18) 0.846 1.58 (0.74-3.36) 0.233
75 and over 3.91 (2.16-7.06) <0.001‡ 3.63 (1.86-7.07) <0.001‡
Illiterates (ref >1 year of schooling) 1.74 (1.02-2.96) 0.039‡ 1.62 (0.90-2.91) 0.102
Income level
1.1-3.0 (ref 0.0-1.0) 0.79 (0.44-1.39) 0.418 0.85 (0.46-1.58) 0.620
3.1 or over (ref 0.0-1.0) 0.68 (0.29 – 1.57) 0.377 0.31 (0.09-1.06) 0.064
Mental health
MMSE score 0.85 (0.79-0.91) <0.001‡ 0.84 (0.77-0.91) <0.001‡
1.27 (0.69-2.34) 0.445 1.87 (1.00-3.53) 0.051
Depressive symptoms
High concern of falling 3.65 (2.07-6.45) <0.001‡ 3.40 (1.82-10.53) <0.001‡
Physical health
Hypertension 1.27 (0.74-2.19) 0.386 1.26 (0.69-2.30) 0.450
Heart diseases 1.40 (0.76-2.55) 0.278 1.07 (0.53-2.13) 0.852
Stroke 3.01 (1.34-6.73) 0.007‡ 2.44 (1.02-5.86) 0.044‡
Diabetes 2.38 (1.41-4.01) 0.001‡ 1.65 (0.92-2.96) 0.092
Arthritis 2.25 (1.30-3.89) 0.004‡ 2.15 (1.18-3.91) 0.012‡
Lung disease 1.37 (0.61-3.04) 0.441 0.65 (0.22-1.92) 0.442
Urinary incontinence 3.98 (2.26-7.03) <0.001‡ 3.70 (2.01-6.79) <0.001‡
Number of diseases
1 or 2 diseases (ref 0 disease) 1.83 (0.60-5.50) 0.282 3.17 (0.72-13.97) 0.126
≥ 3 diseases (ref 0 disease) 4.98 (1.68-14.74) 0.004‡ 7.24 (1.67-31.45) 0.008‡
Polypharmacy (ref 0–3 drugs) 2.42 (1.45-4.06) <0.001‡ 2.35 (1.33-4.14) 0.003‡
Fatigue 1.74 (0.85-3.58) 0.131 1.85 (0.85-4.00) 0.118
Poor self-rated health (ref good or very good) 1.54 (0.93-2.56) 0.093 1.71 (0.97-3.01) 0.062
Single fall (ref no falls) 1.27 (0.76-2.13) 0.353 1.77 (1.01-3.10) 0.047‡
Two or more falls (ref no falls) 1.90 (1.01-3.58) 0.046‡ 2.51 (1.30-4.85) 0.006‡
Physical functioning
≥ 1ADL ( ref 0 ADL) 3.77 (1.63-8.71) 0.002‡ 4.46 (1.89-10.53) 0.001‡
Low physical activity level (ref other quintiles) 3.91 (2.23-6.85) <0.001‡ 4.08 (2.24-7.44) <0.001‡

Abbreviations: ref, reference category; OR, Odds ratio; CI, Confidence Interval; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; ADL, Activities of Daily Living.

ORs denote the odds of having a slower usual gait speed or a slower fast gait speed.

‡p-values that included variables used in the multivariate analysis (p<0.05).x.

Ruggero et al.

Ruggero et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:182   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-182

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