Table 3

Multivariate association of behavioural factors with HIV infection among female drug users in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
All drug users Only IDUs
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7
Adjusted odds ratio
(95% confidence interval)
Age 1.10* 1.10* 1.11* 1.11* 1.07* 1.07 1.08*
(1.04-1.17) (1.03-1.17) (1.04-1.18) (1.04-1.19) (1.01-1.15) (1.00-1.15) (1.00-1.17)
Ever attended school (ref. No) 10.85* 9.03* 10.83* 10.52* 6.14* 6.21* 4.85
(2.46-47.79) (2.05-39.73) (2.44-48.13) (2.38-46.56) (1.34-28.06) (1.31-29.49) (0.96-24.55)
Currently married, or currently not married but living with sex partner (ref. Not married, not living with sexual partner) 2.33 2.15 1.84 1.85 2.01 1.62 1.69
(0.72-7.53) (0.78-5.94) (0.57-5.96) (0.57-6.01) (0.72-5.66) (0.57-4.62) (0.52-5.47)
Ever injected illegal/non-medical drugs (ref. No) 2.48* 2.41* 2.65*
(1.05-5.84) (1.02-5.73) (1.08-6.49)
Ever used a needle or syringe previously used by someone else (ref. No/Non-IDU) 2.50*
(1.35-4.63)
Used needles or syringes previously used by someone else in the past one month (ref. Never/non-IDU) 2.60*
(1.40-4.81)
Used needles or syringes previously used by someone else, injecting 6 times a week or less in the past month (ref. Non-IDU/Never) 0.93 0.78
(0.24-3.64) (0.19-3.26)
Used needles or syringes previously used by someone else, injecting 1 time a day or more in the past month (ref. Non-IDU/Never) 2.53* 2.19
(1.28-4.99) (0.99-4.84)
Ever had sexual intercourse (ref. No) 2.52 2.72 2.57
(0.40-15.96) (0.43-17.20) (0.41-16.26)
Had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months (ref. No/Never had sex) 3.77*
(1.19-11.97)
Had sexual intercourse with regular partner in the last 12 months (ref. No/Never had sex) 1.24
(0.57-2.70)
Had sexual intercourse with commercial partner in the last 12 months (ref. No/Never had sex) 2.20*
(1.09-4.48)
Had sexual intercourse with non-regular non-commercial partner in the last 12 months (ref. No/Never had sex) 2.49*
(1.25-4.95)
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all regular partner(s)a
  Always/Often 1.15 1.13
(0.45-2.93) (0.40-3.20)
  Sometimes/Never 1.33 1.19
(0.57-3.11) (0.47-3.04)
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all commercial partner(s)a
  Always/Often 3.35* 3.41*
(1.47-7.61) (1.39-8.40)
  Sometimes/Never 1.45 1.66
(0.63-3.35) (0.67-4.08)
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all non-regular non-commercial partner(s)a
  Always/Often 1.71 2.13
(0.72-4.07) (0.82-5.53)
  Sometimes/Never 3.11* 3.11*
(1.36-7.13) (1.28-7.56)

IDUs, injecting drug users.

aref. Never had sex/No sex with this type of sexual partner in the last 12 months.

*p value <0.05.

Ghimire et al.

Ghimire et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1238   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1238

Open Data