Table 1

Characteristics of the participants with and without cardiovascular disease according to country of birth
No cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease
Variable Born in Iraq Born in Sweden P Born in Iraq Born in Sweden P
N= 1,311 N= 698 N= 54 N= 41
Age, years 45.8 (9.4) 49.2 (11.1) <0.001 57.1 (8.8) 56.3 (10.8) 0.683
Male sex, n (%) 757 (57.7) 370 (53.0) 0.042 44 (81.5) 19 (46.3) 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 29.3 (4.5) 27.2 (4.7) 0.001 29.5 (3.9) 27.9 (4.6) 0.129
Waist-to-hip ratio for men 1.0 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) <0.001 1.0 (0.1) 1.0 (0.1) 0.366
Waist-to-hip ratio for women 0.9 (0.2) 0.8 (0.1) <0.001 0.9 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.093
Systolic blood pressure, mmHga 128.6 (16.6) 135.6 (19.5) <0.001 134.9 (17.7) 137.3 (24.5) 0.249
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHga 77.8 (10.3) 81.3 (11.3) <0.001 79.2 (11.3) 80.0 (13.4) 0.182
Fasting glucose, mmol/Lb 5.9 (1.4) 5.7 (1.2) 0.054 7.3 (2.7) 5.7 (0.8) 0.839
C-peptide, nmol/L 0.8 (0.3) 0.7 (0.3) <0.001 0.9 (0.4) 0.8 (0.4) 0.583
Total cholesterol, mmol/Lc 4.9 (1.0) 5.2 (1.0) <0.001 4.4 (1.1) 4.9 (1.2) 0.226
p-low-density lipoprotein, mmol/Lc 3.2 (0.8) 3.3 (0.9) 0.019 2.7 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 0.715
p-high-density lipoprotein, mmol/Lc 1.2 (0.3) 1.4 (0.4) <0.001 1.1 (0.4) 1.5 (0.5) 0.032
p-triglycerides, mmol/Lc 1.6 (1.2) 1.3 (0.8) <0.001 1.9 (1.2) 1.3 (0.6) 0.033
Education level lower than high school exam, n (%) 366 (28.1) 125 (17.9) <0.001 10 (18.9) 15 (36.6) 0.135
INTERHEART risk factors [2]
Type 2 diabetes, n (%)d 88 (6.7) 23 (3.3) <0.001 26 (48.1) 2 (4.9) 0.001
History of hypertension, n (%)e 146 (11.2) 98 (14.0) 0.465 25 (46.3) 19 (46.3) 0.623
Elevated p-LDL/p-HDL ratiob, n (%)f 280 (22.7) 102 (15.8) 0.002 9 (18.4) 3 (7.7) 0.385
Abdominal obesity, n (%)g 783 (60.1) 222 (32.1) <0.001 36 (67.9) 16 (39.0) 0.006
Physical activity <4 hours/week, n (%) 1004 (84.9) 327 (52.1) <0.001 35 (85.4) 21 (65.6) 0.058
Intake of fruit/vegetables < once daily, n (%) 676 (52.5) 343 (49.2) 0.703 25 (47.2) 23 (56.1) 0.201
Alcohol consumption, n (%) 229 (18.7) 575 (83.5) <0.001 17 (40.5) 26 (66.7) 0.006
Tobacco smoking, n (%)h 310 (23.9) 172 (24.7) 0.307 17 (32.7) 18 (43.9) 0.087
Depression, n (%)i 194 (16.1) 15 (2.5) <0.001 5 (11.9) 3 (10.7) 0.981
Stress, n (%)k 492 (37.8) 138 (19.8) <0.001 20 (38.5) 16 (39.0) 0.839
Economic difficulties > once last year, n (%)l 675 (52.2) 104 (14.9) <0.001 26 (49.1) 10 (24.4) 0.030
Life events >1, n (%)m 886 (67.6) 605 (86.7) <0.001 40 (74.1) 36 (87.8) 0.205

Data are presented as means (standard deviation) unless otherwise indicated. Comparisons between means were conducted using linear regression with adjustment for age and sex, while groups were compared using logistic regression with adjustment for age and sex.

aAdjusted for age, sex and antihypertensive medication.

bAdjusted for age, sex and oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin.

cAdjusted for age, sex and medication against hypercholesterolemia.

dConfirmed by treatment with oral hyperglycemic agents and/or insulin, or by a fasting glucose level of ≥7.0 mmol/L.

eSelf-reported history of hypertension.

fParticipants with p-LDL/p-HDL ratios >3.67 (i.e. the highest quintile).

gWaist-hip-ratio ≥0.95 in men and ≥0.90 in women.

hPrevious or current tobacco smokers.

iModerate to severe depression, indicated by >10 points on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [16].

kParticipants who often feel stressed in daily life.

l.Difficulties paying for food, rent and/or bills on several occasions in the last year.

mMore than one life event during the lifetime.

Bennet et al.

Bennet et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1133   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1133

Open Data