Table 4

Risk factor calculation results
Sample size, age Data collection Factors assessed Results Comments
Case [27] (USA) 694 lesbian, 90129 heterosexual Age 32-51 Nurses Health Study II Nulliparity, alcohol use Higher prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in lesbians Remarkably small percentage lesbian sample of 0.8%,
Cochran [16] (USA) 11,876 lesbians, approx 19,000 women. Ages 18-75 Two national and five regional lesbian surveys, NHANES III, NHIS Obesity, alcohol use, smoking, parity, contraceptive use, health insurance, mammography Higher prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in lesbians There will be some lesbians in the comparator surveys
Grindel [26] (USA) 1139 lesbian ?n comparators Self-administered questionnaire compared to various US national surveys Family history of cancer, smoking, nutrition, exercise, body weight, alcohol use, HRT, sunscreen use, mammography, Very similar prevalence of risk factors in lesbians compared to national surveys Poor quality study, multiple comparator surveys means results difficult to interpret
Rankow [18] (USA) 591 lesbian, ?n comparators Regional lesbian survey, BRFSS, NHANES III, NHIS, Family history, nulliparity, overweight (BMI > 27.3), alcohol use, menarche < 12 years, mean age at menarche “Some lesbian and bisexual women may be more likely to possess certain characteristics associated with increased breast cancer risk” Poor quality study, multiple comparator surveys means results difficult to interpret
Roberts [19] (USA) 433 lesbian, 586 heterosexual (mean age 42.9) Retrospective medical record audit Alcohol use, smoking, parity, contraceptive pill use, HRT, family history, BMI, menarche age, menopause age, mammogram age, Higher prevalence of some risk factors for breast cancer in lesbians Likely that the sample are poorer and lower social class than a standard population
Valanis [20] (USA) 573 lesbian, 740 bisexual 90,578 heterosexual 1,420 asexual Mean ages between 56.7 and 64.8 Women’s Health Initiative survey Mammogram, diet, smoking, alcohol use, overweight, exercise, psychosocial characteristics, contraceptive pill, HRT, pregnancy, hysterectomy, Higher rate of engaging in risky behaviours which contribute to a higher risk for breast cancer Small percentage lesbian/bisexual sample of 1.4%, 2.8% preferred not to indicate their sexual orientation so were excluded from analysis

Meads and Moore

Meads and Moore BMC Public Health 2013 13:1127   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1127

Open Data