Table 3

Distribution of children (%) under 5 years according to paternal characteristics
2003 2010
(n = 200) (n = 388)
Categorical variables N* % N* % p-value**
Continuous variables# Mean(SD) Mean(SD)
Father’s schooling (years)
 Did not go to school 15 8.2% - - < 0.001 '
 1 to 4 years inclusive 50 27.5% 70 20.1%
 5 to 8 years inclusive 39 21.4% 48 13.8%
More than 8 years 78 42.9% 231 66.2%
Father’s paid work in the last 30 days
 No 17 8.9% 81 20.9% < 0.001
 Yes 173 91.1% 245 63.1%
Maternal marital situation
 Lack of a partner 26 22.2% 93 24.4% 0.627
 Presence of a partner 91 77.8% 288 75.6%
Maternal schooling(years)
 Did not go to school 8 6.8% - - < 0.001 '
 1 to 4 years inclusive 27 23.1% 88 25.2%
 5 to 8 years inclusive 35 29.9% 88 25.2%
 More than 8 years 47 40.2% 173 49.6%
Mother’s paid work in the last 30 days
 No 67 59.3% 259 67.8% 0.094
 Yes 46 40.7% 123 32.2%
Maternal age#
 Average (years) 183 26.21 (7.64) 378 28.43 (9.33) 0.005
Maternal height#
 Average (cm) 187 158.5 (5.29) 350 158.8 (39.63) 0.916
Maternal BMI
 Below 25 kg/m2 128 73.1% 184 52.7% < 0.001
 Equal or above 25 kg/m2 47 26.9% 165 47.3%
Maternal time of residence in the urban area
 Less than 1 year - 43 11.1% -
 Between 1 and 7 years 107 27.6%
 7 years or more 227 58.5%

Assis Brasil, AC, 2003 and 2010.

*Missing in some variables.

**p-values without a mark ( ): Pearson’s chi-square test; with a mark ( ' ): Fisher's exact test.

#Continuous variables.

Ramalho et al.

Ramalho et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1098   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1098

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