Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

Jorge Alberto Gomez16*, Juan Carlos Tirado2, Aldo Amador Navarro Rojas3, Maria Mercedes Castrejon Alba4 and Oleksandr Topachevskyi5

Author Affiliations

1 GSK Argentina, Victoria, Buenos Aires, Argentina

2 Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo, Lima, Peru

3 GSK Peru, Lima, Peru

4 GSK Panama, Panama City, Panama

5 GSK Belgium, Wavre, Belgium

6 Carlos Casares, 3690 – B1644CD, Victoria, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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BMC Public Health 2013, 13:1025  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1025

Published: 30 October 2013



The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru.


A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated.


Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed.


The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely to be a dominant (better health gains at a reduced net cost) intervention compared to PCV-13 or PCV-7. The most significant drivers for these results are the better health and economic profile of PHiD-CV against AOM and its reduced cost per dose available through the PAHO Revolving Fund in the LAC region.

Pneumococcal disease; Pneumococcal vaccines; Cost-effectiveness; Acute otitis media; Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae; Peru