Composition of OOP payments according to the type and levels of healthcare services. This figure depicts the composition of out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care for chronic conditions according to the type (i.e., government, private) and the level (i.e., clinics/health centres, referral hospitals, super-specialty hospitals) of healthcare services. The greatest share of out-of-pocket payments (66.3%) was on the purchase of medications irrespective of the type and the level of healthcare services used. Apart from the expenditures on medications, the laboratory investigations and the consultation fees of doctors took the greatest shares of OOP payments at the health centres/clinics and referral hospital levels. At the super-specialty level, expenditures on travel to healthcare facilities became the second largest expenditure.
Bhojani et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:990 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-990