Table 8

Types of catastrophic costs
Author(s) (year) Country Catastrophic Costs for Average Income Earners Range (% of annual income) Catastrophic Costs for Lowest 20% Range (% of annual income)
Aspler, et al. (1998) [41] Zambia Total 12 Total, direct, indirect, pre-diagnosis, treatment, time, transportation, medication, hospitalization, direct clinic-based DOTS, indirect clinic-based DOTS 12-40
Awofeso, N. (1998) [42] Nigeria Medication 121 Medication 589
Bevan, E. (1997) [43] Kenya ___ ___ Medication, syringes and needles 11-32
Chard, S. (2001) [46] Uganda Medication, traditional healer, “tipping” providers 12-165 Medication, traditional healer, “tipping” providers 41-544
Chard, S. (2009) [47] Uganda Private provider, traditional healer 47-188 Private provider, traditional healer 154-618
Datiko and Lindtjørn (2010) [48] Ethiopia Total, travel, time, caregiver, direct, food 17-48 Total, travel, time, caregiver, direct, food 15-104
Floyd, et al. (2003) [50] Malawi Travel, hospitalization, DOTS visit 13-262 Travel, hospitalization 18-1043
Floyd, et al. (1997) [51] South Africa Total, hospitalization 11-12 Total, hospitalization 17-67
Gibson, et al. (1998) [52] Sierra Leone pre-program, program, hospital admission fees 17-88 Total, pre-program, program, hospital admission fees 32-287
Harper, et al. (2003) [53] The Gambia Private treatment 11 Private treatment 54
Kemp, et al. (2007) [54] Malawi Direct, income lost, user fees and medication, pre-diagnosis 21-40 Direct, income lost, user fees and medication, pre-diagnosis, food, travel 15-155
Mesfin, et al. (2010) [55] Ethiopia Medical, non-medical, indirect, direct, medication, caregiver, total 11-136 Medical, non-medical, indirect, direct, medication, caregiver, travel, total 12-292
Moalosi, et al. (2003) [56] Botswana Total caregiver costs Caregiver hospitalization Caregiver food and supplies 13-51 Total caregiver costs, caregiver hospitalization, caregiver medication, caregiver food and supplies 29-258
Needham, et al. (1996) [57] Zambia Total medical, direct, income lost 16-148 Total medical, total non-medical, direct, income lost 43-688
Needham, et al. (1998) [58] Zambia Total, indirect, pre-diagnosis, non-medical, food 11-47 Total, indirect, pre-diagnosis, non-medical, medical, food, diagnostic tests, caregiver, private provider, traditional healer, consultation fees, travel, 15-214
Needham, et al. (2004) [59] Zambia ___ ___ Transportation 11
Nganda, et al. (2003) [60] Kenya Hospitalization, travel 33-101 Hospitalization, travel 22-336
Okello, et al. (2003) [61] Uganda Hospitalization, travel 12-73 Hospitalization, travel 40-241
Saunderson, P.R. (1995) [31] Uganda Total, hospitalization, pre-diagnosis, indirect 34-249 Total, hospitalization, pre-diagnosis, indirect 111-809
Sinanovic, et al. (2003) [63] South Africa ___ ___ Total 11-43
Sinanovic and Kumaranay-ake (2006) [64] South Africa ___ ___ Total, time, travel 11-53
Vassall, et al. (2010) [65] Ethiopia Direct, indirect, travel and total pretreatment 23-298 Direct, indirect, travel and total pretreatment 50-639
Wandwalo, et al. (2005) [66] Tanzania Total, direct, indirect 16-32 Total, direct, indirect 18-65
Wilkinson, et al. (1997) [67] South Africa ___ ___ Total, hospitalization 20-27
Wyss, et al. (2001) [68] Tanzania Private provider 12 Traditional healer, private provider, hospitalization 10-29

Barter et al.

Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980

Open Data