Table 6

Travel costs
Author(s) year Country Cost estimate (I$) % monthly per-capita income (entire population) % monthly per-capital income (income-poorest 20% of the population) Notes
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 3 8 43 Median costs for pre-diagnosis (IQR I$1- I$7)
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 12 31 171 Median costs for pill collection visits (IQR I$4- I$29)
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 4 10 57 Median costs for follow-up visits (IQR I$2- I$4)
Bevan, E. [43] Kenya 5 11 35 Daily cost to travel to a designated DOTS center
Cambanis, et al. [45] Ethiopia 7 47 100a Mean costs for transport to a health facility
Chard, S. [46] Uganda 3 14 45b Mean transportation costs to a health facility in Kampala
Chard, S. [46] Uganda 5 21 67b Mean transportation costs to a health facility in Mukono
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 2 14 31c Mean transport costs for a community-based DOTS treatment program (sd I$5)
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 15 88 188c Mean transport costs for a health facility-based DOTS treatment program (sd I$43)
Edginton, et al. [49] South Africa 3 0.96 7d Mid-point costs for 69% of hospital attendees and 48% of clinic attendees (range I$0.52-I$5)e
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 12 4 20f Mean travel cost for a hospital visit
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 2 0.74 4f Mean travel cost for a health clinic visit
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 0.17 0.05 0.30f Mean travel cost for a health clinic DOTS visit
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 0.85 0.27 1f Mean travel cost for a TB ward DOTS visit
Floyd, et al. [50] Malawi 4 26 102 Mean costs for visit to a health center to collect drugs for smear-positive and -negative patients under hospital and community-based strategies (I$18 for average 5 visits)
Harper, et al. [53] The Gambia 0.55 2 8g Mean daily fare to attend a TB clinic (range I$0.44-I$0.66)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 18 116 456h Mean transport costs for smear-positive patients (median I$11)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 13 81 319h Mean transport costs for smear-negative patients (median I$5)
Mesfin, et al. [55] Ethiopia 11 72 155 Mean transport costs for visiting a public health facility pre-diagnosis
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 9 26 150 Mean transportation cost during treatment (median I$3)
Nganda, et al. [60] Kenya 9 20 67i Mean cost for a visit to collect drugs from a health facility for smear-positive patients under conventional and community-based strategies for smear-positive patients (I$44 for average 5 visits)j
Okello, et al. [61] Uganda 6 24 78k Mean costs to the nearest health facility in an outpatient system and costs to collect drugs under the conventional hospital-based care strategy and the community-based care strategy for smear-positive patients (I$37 for average 5 visits)
Sinanovic, et al. [63] South Africa 0.40 0.13 0.69m Mean cost for monitoring and collection of drugs and a clinic-based DOTS visit in Guguletu, Cape Town (95% CI I$0.20- I$0.60)
Sinanovic, et al. [63] South Africa 0.30 0.09 0.52m Mean cost for monitoring and collection of drugs and a clinic-based DOTS visit in Nyanga, Cape Town (95% CI I$0.10- I$0.50)
Vassall, et al. [65] Ethiopia 70 444 952 Mean pretreatment transportation costs (median I$4)n
Wilkinson, et al. [67] South Africa 5 2 9 o Average cost of a visit to a village clinicp
Wilkinson, et al. [67] South Africa 20 6 34 o Average cost of a visit to a hospitalp
Wilkinson, et al. [67] South Africa 1 0.43 2 o Average cost of a village clinic DOTS visit, a community health worker DOTS visit, and a non-health worker DOTS visitp
Wyss, et al. [68] Tanzania 9 32 83 q Weekly transportation costs

a Income share based on 2005 estimates instead of 2004; b Income share based on 1999 estimates instead of 1998; c Income share based on 2005 estimates instead of 2006; d Income share based on 1993 estimates instead of 1994; e 29% of hospital attendees and 52% of clinic attendees reported to pay no cost in transportation fees, and 2% of hospital attendees and 0 clinic attendees paid more than I$5; f Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1996; g Income share based on 1998 estimates instead of 2000; h Income share based on 1998 estimates instead of 2000; i Income share based on 1997 estimates instead of 1998; j The conventional was approach used until 1997 in which new patients were hospitalized for the first month of treatment and subsequently provided unsupervised treatment for the next 11 months. The community-based approach was used after 1997 in which patients spent the first 2 months of treatment in DOTS outpatient programs and the remaining 6 months of treatment in unsupervised outpatient visits; k Income share based on 1999 estimates instead of 1998; l Income share based on 2004 estimates instead of 2005; m Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1997; n Note: these costs are over several months—the authors did not report single transportation costs; o Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1996; p Note: these costs include indirect time costs; q Income share based on 2000 estimates instead of 1996.

Barter et al.

Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980

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