Table 5

Traditional healer and food costs
Author(s) (year) Country Cost estimate (I$) % Annual per-capita income (entire population) % Annual per-capita income (income-poorest 20% of the population) Notes
Traditional healer costs
Brouwer, et al. [44] Malawi 4 2 9a Weighted mean of traditional healer costs (range I$0- I$28)b
Chard, S. [47] Uganda 563 188 618c One study participant reported this cost for a traditional healer
Chard, S. [46] Uganda 15 5 16c Mid-point estimate (range I$2-I$10). A few patients in the sample reported to pay roughly I$495
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 17 4 25 Average cost to see a traditional healer (median I$7)
Wyss, et al. [68] Tanzania 13 4 10d Unit cost to see a traditional healer
Food costs
Aspler, et al. [[41] Zambia 4 0.78 4 Median food costs (IQR I$1- I$7)
Datiko and Lindtjørn [48] Ethiopia 14 7 15e Mean food costs for a community-based DOTS treatment program (sd I$12)
Datiko and Lindtjørn [48] Ethiopia 36 17 37e Mean food costs for a health-facility-based DOTS treatment program (sd I$21)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 7 4 15f Mean food costs for smear-negative patients (median I$2)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 10 5 21f Mean food costs for smear-positive patients (median I$0)
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 3 1 5 Mean food cost (median I$2)
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 36 9 53 Mean cost for “special” foodsg (median I$19)

a Income share based on 1998 estimates instead of 1995; b43% of patients in the sample who sought care from traditional healers paid no charge, 21% paid under I$0.92, 24% paid between I$0.92 and I$5, 6% paid between I$6 and I$14, and the remaining 6% paid between I$14 and I$28; c Income share based on 1999 estimates instead of 1998; d Income share based on 2000 estimates instead of 1996; e Income share based on 2005 estimates instead of 2006; f Income share based on 1998 estimates instead of 2000; g Defined as food separate from normal diets such as potatoes, eggs, meat, fruit, and soft drinks [58].

Barter et al.

Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980

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