Table 2

Types of Costs
Cost categories Definition Direct or indirect Pre- or post-diagnosis Number of studies reporting cost category Range (median) of costs
Health insurance Costs required for national health insurance schemes to finance TB care Direct Pre-diagnosis 2 I$2- I$3 (I$2)
Consultation or prepayment fees Costs charged by providers before diagnosis or treatment Direct Pre-diagnosis 4 I$2- I$7 (I$3)
Private provider fees Costs charged in the private sector rather than the public sector Direct Both 4 I$24- I$141 (I$41)
Hospitalization Costs associated with hospitalization due to TB Direct Post-diagnosis 10 I$1- I$530 (I$80)
Medication Costs of medications including standard TB treatment under non-DOTS systems and other drugs Direct Post-diagnosis 5 I$15- I$548 (I$21)a
Diagnostic tests Costs for tests other than sputum microscopy such as x-rays, chest radiographs, or other laboratory tests Direct Pre-diagnosis 3 I$7- I$10 (I$9)
Traditional healer Costs associated with seeking traditional healers before Western medical care Direct Pre-diagnosis 5 I$4- I$563 (I$15)
Food Costs for regular food and food separate from normal diets such as potatoes, eggs, meat, fruit, and soft drinks [58] Direct Post-diagnosis 4 I$4- I$36 (I$10)
Travel Costs for travel association with pre-diagnosis, consultation, diagnosis, treatment, pill collection, DOTS and follow-up treatment visits. Direct Both 18 I$0.17- I$70 (I$5)
Time Time and indirect costs associated with time spent seeking/receiving care and lost work time Indirect Both 21 I$0.23- I$412 (I$16)b
Caregiver Costs to those accompanying patients to TB care visits, retrieving medications on their behalf, or cost of care-giving activities. Direct costs encompass travel expenses, food, or other costs such as paying for an overnight stay when making a long journey. Indirect costs include loss of income and time spent accompanying patients or providing care-giving activities. Both Both 8 I$0.41- I$1,510 (I$11)c

a Note: Some medication estimates also include the cost of user/consultation fees; b Costs include only reported costs of income lost due to time; c Based on different categories of costs.

Barter et al.

Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980

Open Data