|Types of Costs|
|Cost categories||Definition||Direct or indirect||Pre- or post-diagnosis||Number of studies reporting cost category||Range (median) of costs|
|Health insurance||Costs required for national health insurance schemes to finance TB care||Direct||Pre-diagnosis||2||I$2- I$3 (I$2)|
|Consultation or prepayment fees||Costs charged by providers before diagnosis or treatment||Direct||Pre-diagnosis||4||I$2- I$7 (I$3)|
|Private provider fees||Costs charged in the private sector rather than the public sector||Direct||Both||4||I$24- I$141 (I$41)|
|Hospitalization||Costs associated with hospitalization due to TB||Direct||Post-diagnosis||10||I$1- I$530 (I$80)|
|Medication||Costs of medications including standard TB treatment under non-DOTS systems and other drugs||Direct||Post-diagnosis||5||I$15- I$548 (I$21)a|
|Diagnostic tests||Costs for tests other than sputum microscopy such as x-rays, chest radiographs, or other laboratory tests||Direct||Pre-diagnosis||3||I$7- I$10 (I$9)|
|Traditional healer||Costs associated with seeking traditional healers before Western medical care||Direct||Pre-diagnosis||5||I$4- I$563 (I$15)|
|Food||Costs for regular food and food separate from normal diets such as potatoes, eggs, meat, fruit, and soft drinks ||Direct||Post-diagnosis||4||I$4- I$36 (I$10)|
|Travel||Costs for travel association with pre-diagnosis, consultation, diagnosis, treatment, pill collection, DOTS and follow-up treatment visits.||Direct||Both||18||I$0.17- I$70 (I$5)|
|Time||Time and indirect costs associated with time spent seeking/receiving care and lost work time||Indirect||Both||21||I$0.23- I$412 (I$16)b|
|Caregiver||Costs to those accompanying patients to TB care visits, retrieving medications on their behalf, or cost of care-giving activities. Direct costs encompass travel expenses, food, or other costs such as paying for an overnight stay when making a long journey. Indirect costs include loss of income and time spent accompanying patients or providing care-giving activities.||Both||Both||8||I$0.41- I$1,510 (I$11)c|
a Note: Some medication estimates also include the cost of user/consultation fees; b Costs include only reported costs of income lost due to time; c Based on different categories of costs.
Barter et al.
Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980