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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Sedentary behaviours and its association with bone mass in adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

Luis Gracia-Marco12*, Juan P Rey-López23, Alba M Santaliestra-Pasías2, David Jiménez-Pavón25, Ligia E Díaz6, Luis A Moreno24 and German Vicente-Rodríguez27

Author Affiliations

1 School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Heavitree Road, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK

2 GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

3 Children Institute, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

4 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain

5 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

6 Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain

7 Faculty of Health and Sport Science (FCSD), Department of Physiatry and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, Ronda Misericordia 5, 22001, Huesca, Spain

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BMC Public Health 2012, 12:971  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-971

Published: 13 November 2012

Abstract

Background

We aimed to examine whether time spent on different sedentary behaviours is associated with bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescents, after controlling for relevant confounders such as lean mass and objectively measured physical activity (PA), and if so, whether extra-curricular participation in osteogenic sports could have a role in this association.

Methods

Participants were 359 Spanish adolescents (12.5-17.5 yr, 178 boys,) from the HELENA-CSS (2006–07). Relationships of sedentary behaviours with bone variables were analysed by linear regression. The prevalence of low BMC (at least 1SD below the mean) and time spent on sedentary behaviours according to extracurricular sport participation was analysed by Chi-square tests.

Results

In boys, the use of internet for non-study was negatively associated with whole body BMC after adjustment for lean mass and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). In girls, the time spent studying was negatively associated with femoral neck BMC. Additional adjustment for lean mass slightly reduced the negative association between time spent studying and femoral neck BMC. The additional adjustment for MVPA did not change the results at this site. The percentage of girls having low femoral neck BMC was significantly smaller in those participating in osteogenic sports (≥ 3 h/week) than in the rest, independently of the cut-off selected for the time spent studying.

Conclusions

The use of internet for non-study (in boys) and the time spent studying (in girls) are negatively associated with whole body and femoral neck BMC, respectively. In addition, at least 3 h/week of extra-curricular osteogenic sports may help to counteract the negative association of time spent studying on bone health in girls.

Keywords:
Bone health; Sedentary behaviours; Adolescents; Physical activity and extra-curricular participation in sports