Table 3

Gender gap differences in circulatory disease mortality (0–64 years) with Cluster 2004 as main predictor
Base model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Time trend terms
Linear −1.99 (2.28) 5.35 (2.66) 12.79 (2.87) 55.14 (12.18) 48.42 (11.82)
Quadratic −10.59 (0.76) −10.61 (0.76) −7.88 (0.90) −7.96 (0.90) −1.77 (1.05)
Cubic 30.55 (2.95) 30.60 (2.95) 34.13 (3.06) 33.97 (3.06) 25.60 (3.22)
Time-varying factors
GDP/1000 dollars −0.25 (0.05) −0.25 (0.05) −0.26 (0.05)
Female smoking (%) 0.04 (0.04)
Male smoking (%) −0.10 (0.04)
Alcohol consumption/l 0.05 (0.11)
Calorie intake/100 0.13 (0.10)
Time invariant factors
Intercept (constant) 64.54 (0.98) 62.70 (1.23) 85.03 (8.01) 66.43 (11.89) 73.08 (12.19)
Universal citizen −1.01 (2.88) −1.33 (2.72) −2.96 (2.66) −3.41 (2.60)
Compensatory breadwinner 1.09 (2.05) 0.64 (1.97) 0.16 (1.84) −0.47 (1.80)
Earner-carer 6.17 (1.94) 3.11 (2.39) 1.37 (2.41) 1.80 (2.42)
Gini 2005 (0–10) −5.62 (2.43) −4.03 (2.37) −4.45 (2.27)
GEM04 (0–10) 1.88 (0.98) 0.93 (1.01)
Change over time
Universal citizen −7.18 (6.19) −8.30 (5.82) −2.84 (4.90) −0.05 (4.64)
Compensatory breadwinner −9.04 (4.40) −9.00 (4.13) −6.86 (3.35) −5.91 (3.18)
Earner-carer −17.05 (4.16) −16.42 (3.91) −7.63 (3.98) −7.23 (3.85)
GEM04 (0–10) −6.06 (1.71) −5.54 (1.64)
Random part
Variance (constant) 20.83 (6.31) 13.48 (4.09) 12.01 (3.65) 10.29 (3.13) 9.58 (2.94)
Covariance (linear/constant) −18.50 (10.97) −1.77 (6.19) −3.46 (5.54) 2.61 (4.09) 5.20 (3.87)
Variance (linear) 109.15 (33.25) 61.07 (18.64) 53.70 (16.53) 33.82 (10.48) 28.69 (9.45)

Reference category is the male breadwinner cluster. Regression estimates with standard errors.

Model 1: + Cluster 2004 Model 2: + Economic factors Model 3: GEM 2004 Model 4: + Smoking, alcohol consumption and calorie intake. Time centred at 1990.

Backhans et al.

Backhans et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:969   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-969

Open Data