Table 3

Costs associated with paediatric influenza
Reference, country, and study period Population Costs
Ehlken et al., 2005 [45], 3,458 children aged 0-36 months, with LRTI. Mean (SD) costs (in 2002 euros) per community-acquired, office-based case of confirmed influenza:
Germany, Setting: 11 office-based paediatricians and 5 hospitals. Total cost: €223 (€280)
Influenza season: 1999 — 2001. Direct medical cost: €66 (€24)
Direct non-medical cost: €12 (€10)
Indirect cost: €145 (€266)
Mean (SD) costs (in 2002 euros) per community-acquired, hospitalised case of confirmed influenza:
Total cost: €2,597 (€1,214)
Direct medical cost: €2,428 (€1,200)
Direct non-medical cost: €58 (€75)
Indirect cost: €110 (€249)
Median (95% CI) annual economic burden (in 2002 euros) due to confirmed influenza:
Community-acquired office-based cases: NA
Community-acquired, hospitalised cases:
Median: €7,530,105 (€5,547,410-€10,011,705)
Nosocomial cases: NA
Esposito et al., 2011 [37], 6,988 children aged < 14 years with ILI. Mean (SD) costs (in 2008 euros) of influenza in influenza-positive and influenza-negative children and their households, until resolution of illness:
Italy, Confirmed influenza cases: 2,143 (30.7%).
Influenza season: November 2008 — April 2009. Total: €131.70 (€71.40); €89.40 (€65.20); P < 0.001
Setting: ED at a university hospital.
Paediatric examinations: €33.00 (€4.00); €30.60 (€4.20)
Antibiotics: €3.70 (€4.30); €4.40 (€4.90)
Antipyretics: €2.40 (€2.00); €1.90 (€1.40)
Hospitalisation: €22.40 (€238.10); €22.50 (€251.00)
Working days lost by mothers: €47.90 (€90.10); €26.70 (€89.90); P < 0.05
Working days lost by fathers: €22.30 (€89.70); €3.30 (€39.90); P < 0.05
Mean (SD) costs of influenza in influenza-positive children with influenza A or influenza B and their households, until resolution of illness:
Total: €142.60 (€74.30); €72.80 (€53.30); P < 0.001
Paediatric examinations: €33.30 (€4.60); €30.90 (€3.40)
Antibiotics: €3.70 (€3.30); €3.40 (€3.10)
Antipyretics: €2.50 (€2.10); €2.00 (€1.90)
Hospitalisation: €22.40 (€243.40); €14.20 (€216.70)
Working days lost by mothers: €54.40 (€94.80); €16.60 (€61.40); P < 0.05
Working days lost by fathers: €26.30 (€97.70); €5.70 (€33.30); P < 0.05
Mean (SD) cost of influenza in influenza-positive children of different age groups (<2 years, 2-5 years, and 6-13 years) and their households, until resolution of illness:
Total: €153.20 (€72.80)a; €148.10 (€83.10)a; €73.90 (€41.90)
Paediatric examinations: €33.50 (€5.60); €32.90 (€4.20); €33.00 (€2.50)
Antibiotics: €3.20 (€3.90); €4.00 (€4.60); €3.30 (€3.90)
Antipyretics: €2.40 (€1.90); €2.30 (€2.20); €2.10 (€2.50)
Hospitalisation: €40.80 (€238.80); €23.90 (€268.90); €11.50 (€153.40)
Working days lost by mothers: €46.70 (€96.40)a; €55.60 (€106.70)a; €19.80 (€49.60)
Working days lost by fathers: €26.60 (€90.40)a; €29.40 (€111.40)a; €4.20 (€39.10)

CI = confidence interval; ED = emergency department; ILI = influenza-like illness; LRTI = lower respiratory tract infection; NA = not applicable; SD = standard deviation.

Note: For further details on study design and patient characteristics, see Table  1

aP < 0.05 vs. age > 5 years.

Antonova et al.

Antonova et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:968   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-968

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