Table 2

Incidence and prevalence rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza in children
Reference Country Age Setting Study season or period Influenza rates
Community-based estimates
Van der Zalm, et al., 2009 [50] The Netherlands < 1 year Community October 2003 – September 2006. Prevalence rate: influenza was detected in 2.7% of respiratory samples
Follow-up: until infants reached 1 year of age.
Annual incidence rate: 62 per 1,000a
Heikkinen et al., 2004 [35] Finland ≤ 13 years Community 9 October 2000 – 20 May 2001 and 1 October 2001 – 19 May 2002. Influenza-season incidence rate per 1,000 children:
All ages combined: 167,b
Age < 3 years: 179,
Age 3-6 years: 175,
Age 7-13 years: 142.
Health care setting-based estimates
Ploin et al., 2003 [43] France 0-11 months Paediatric ED 4 weeks of local influenza epidemic peak (weeks 3-6 in 2002) Prevalence rate:
Total: 33%,
Aged 0-2 months: 31%,
Aged 3-5 months: 27%,
Aged 6-8 months: 30%,
Aged 9-11 months: 40%.
Ploin et al., 2007 [36] France < 36 months Paediatric ED 4 weeks of local influenza epidemic peak (weeks 3-6 in 2002) Prevalence rate: 49%
Ehlken et al., 2005 [45] Germany 0-36 months PCP, paediatric hospital 1 November 1999 – 31 October 2001. Annual incidence rate of LRTI associate with influenza: 1.1 per 100 children-years.
Heinonen et al., 2010 [42] Finland 1-3 years (mean age: 2.4 years) Primary care clinic Two local influenza circulation seasons: 14 January – 9 April 2008 and 7 January – 26 March 2009. Prevalence rate: 24.7% of children tested positive for influenza.
Follow-up: 21 days.
Esposito et al., 2011 [37] Italy < 14 years PCP (with community “base”) 1 November 2008 – 30 April 2009. Influenza-season incidence rate: 96.4 per 1,000 children.
Principi et al., 2003 [48] Italy < 14 years PCP and ED 1 November 2001 – 30 April 2002. Prevalence rate: 9.3%, (virology or PCR),
Principi et al., 2004 [38] Including:
8.7% of children seen in EDs and
11.5% of children seen by PCPs.
Bosis et al., 2005 [46] Italy < 15 years ED 1 November 2002 – 31 March 2003. Prevalence rate; 15.3% (by PCR).
Esposito et al., 2005 [47] Italy < 15 years ED 1 November 2002 – 31 March 2003. Prevalence rate: 15.4% (by PCR).
Sanni et al., 2004 [44] France ≤ 15 years Hospital 37 days of local influenza epidemic (1 January – 6 February 2002) Prevalence rate:
Total: 51.8%,
Aged 0-1 year: 42.4%,
Aged > 1 and ≤ 3 years: 68.9%,
Aged > 3 and ≤ 5 years: 41.2%,
Aged > 5 and ≤15 years: 36.8%.

ED = emergency department; LRTI = lower respiratory tract infection; NR = not reported; PCP = primary care pediatrician; PCR = polymerase chain reaction

Note: For further details on study design and patient characteristics, see Table  1.

a We calculated this rate from the paper as follows: 18 [influenza cases] ÷ (305 [enrolled children, corrected for dropout] × 11.5 [average months of follow-up per child] ÷ 12 [months in a year]) × 1,000 = 62.

b We calculated this rate from the data reported in the paper (372 [influenza cases] ÷ 2,231 [recruited children] × 1,000 = 167).

Antonova et al.

Antonova et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:968   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-968

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