Table 4

Level of evidence for the association between PCR as protective and as risk factor and types of alcohol behavior
Parent–child relationship Alcohol use Consistency of findingsc(no of findings in high quality studies) Level of evidence
Protectivea Initiation of (monthly) use 6 s (0), 16 ns (1) Inconclusive
Frequency and/or amount of use 7 s (2), 21 ns (11) Weak
(Initiation of) heavy drinking 4 s (0), 5 ns (2) Inconclusive
Otherd 0 s (0), 5 ns (2) Inconclusive
Total 17 (2), 47 (16) Weak
Riskb Initiation of (monthly) use 0 s (0), 2 ns (2) Inconclusive
Frequency and/or amount of use 1 s (0), 6 ns (1) Inconclusive
(Initiation of) heavy drinking 0 s (0), 2 ns (0) Inconclusive
Otherd 0 s (0), 0 s (0) Inconclusive
Total 1 s (0), 10 ns (3) Inconclusive

Abbreviation: s=significant, ns=not significant.

a Positive PCR (e.g., warmth, support).

b Negative PCR (e.g., conflict, rejection).

c Some studies showed more than one association and therefore total number of findings is higher than total number of studies.

d Types of alcohol behavior that could not be classified in any of the other categories (e.g., a composite score of frequency of use, frequency of heavy use, and frequency of drunkenness).

Visser et al.

Visser et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:886   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-886

Open Data