Table 1

Characteristics and non-participation levels of included studies
First author and year Study design Study size (n) Country Target disease Inclusion criteria target group Recruitment strategy Non-participation level Study quality#
Vaccination
Allsup [21], 2002 RCT 2583 UK Influenza Age (65–74), medical record Letter + reminder 88% * **
Arthur [22], 2002 RCT 2052 UK Influenza Age (≥ 75) Letter health check + vaccination: 26% vaccination in clinic: 32% *
Evans [24], 2003 Observational 2600 UK Influenza Age (≥ 65) Not clear na *
MRC Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community (MRC Study) Breeze [18], 2004 Mangtani [17], 2005 (sub study) Observational 28492 5572 UK Influenza Age (≥ 75) Letter 1997: 52% 1998: 50% 1999: 49% 2000: 37% *
Byrnes [23], 2006 Observational 580 Australia Influenza Age (≥ 65) Telephone + reminder 2004: 23% 2005: 17% *
Opstelten [25], 2009 Observational 1778 The Netherlands Herpes zoster and influenza Age (≥ 65) Letter + reminder HZ (with and without influenza): 61%, Influenza (with and without HZ): 24% *
Vila-Córcoles [26], 2006 Observational 10410 Spain Pneumococcal bacteraemia/invasive disease Age (≥ 65) Not clear 2001: 56% 2002: 49% 2003: 48% *
Screening aimed at early detection of disease
Moser [27], 2009 Observational 3185 UK Cervical cancer Age (25–64), female sex Letter na *
Tacken [28], 2007 Observational 2224 The Netherlands Cervical cancer Age (30–60), female sex Letter + reminder na *
Low [12], 2005 Observational 19773 UK Chlamydia Age (16–39) Letter + reminder 65% **
Verhoeven [29], 2004 Observational 339 Belgium Chlamydia Age (18–35), female sex In General Practice practice 15% *
Pilot ADDITION trial UK: Park [13,14], 2008, 2010 RCT 355 UK Diabetes Age (40–69), medical record Letter 18% *
ADDITION trial UK: Sargeant [20], 2010 Eborall [16], 2007 (sub study) Observational study Controlled trial 33539 7380 UK Diabetes Age (40–69), medical record Letter + reminder 26% *
ADDITION trial Denmark: Christensen [19], 2004 Dalsgaard [15], 2009 (sub study) Observational 60926 4603 Denmark Diabetes Age (40–69), medical record Letter 50% *
Marteau [9], 2010 RCT 1272 UK Diabetes Age (40–69), medical record Letter 43% *
Van der Veen [30], 2009 Observational 8475 The Netherlands Depression and anxiety Age (18–65), recent contact PCP, medical record Letter 64% *
Yeung [31], 2006 Observational 5203 USA Depression Age (≥ 18), ethnicity In General Practice practice 27% *
Fowler [32], 2012 Observational 554 USA Dementia Age (≥ 65), medical record In General Practice practice 10% *
Screening aimed at identification of high risk of disease
Vermunt [36], 2010 Observational 16032 The Netherlands Diabetes Age (40–70), medical record Letter 45% **
Van de Kerkhof [33], 2010 Observational 1704 The Netherlands Cardio-metabolic risk Age (40–75), medical record Letter 25% *
Nielen [35], 2011 Observational 9896 ** The Netherlands Cardio-metabolic risk Age (45–70), medical record Letter or poster and leaflets in waiting room Letter: 67% Poster/leaflet: 99% **
Lambert [34], 2011 Observational 24166 UK Cardio-metabolic risk Age (≥ 40), male sex, medical record Letter or telephone call 76% *
Barr [37], 2005 Observational 5306 UK Fractures Age (≥ 70), female sex Letter 32% *
Zanjani [38], 2006 Observational 8367 USA Risk drinking Age (≥ 65) Not clear 52% *

na : not applicable.

* : low participation level mainly due to the research design; randomized controlled trial of vaccination versus placebo.

HZ: Herpes Zoster.

**: in one half of the practices, GPs invited their selected patients by mail (n = 1583) and in the other half of the practices patients were invited by posters and leaflets in the waiting room (n = 8313 patients belonging to the target group).

#: study quality. * = characteristics or reasons of non-participants given, ** = characteristics and reasons of non-participants given.

Koopmans et al.

Koopmans et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:856   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-856

Open Data