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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Analyzing the spatio-temporal relationship between dengue vector larval density and land-use using factor analysis and spatial ring mapping

Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz1, Nitin K Tripathi1*, Taravudh Tipdecho1, Thawisak Thongbu2, Pornsuk Kerdthong2 and Marc Souris13

Author Affiliations

1 Remote Sensing and GIS, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), P.O. Box 4, Pathumthani 12120, Klong Luang, Thailand

2 The Office of Disease Prevention and Control, Bureau of Vector Borne Disease (9th), Ministry of Public Health, Wat bot road, Muang Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand

3 , Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 190, Marseille, France

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BMC Public Health 2012, 12:853  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-853

Published: 9 October 2012

Abstract

Background

Dengue, a mosquito-borne febrile viral disease, is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions and is now extending its range to temperate regions. The spread of the dengue viruses mainly depends on vector population (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), which is influenced by changing climatic conditions and various land-use/land-cover types. Spatial display of the relationship between dengue vector density and land-cover types is required to describe a near-future viral outbreak scenario. This study is aimed at exploring how land-cover types are linked to the behavior of dengue-transmitting mosquitoes.

Methods

Surveys were conducted in 92 villages of Phitsanulok Province Thailand. The sampling was conducted on three separate occasions in the months of March, May and July. Dengue indices, i.e. container index (C.I.), house index (H.I.) and Breteau index (B.I.) were used to map habitats conducible to dengue vector growth. Spatial epidemiological analysis using Bivariate Pearson’s correlation was conducted to evaluate the level of interdependence between larval density and land-use types. Factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was performed to ascertain the variance among land-use types. Furthermore, spatial ring method was used as to visualize spatially referenced, multivariate and temporal data in single information graphic.

Results

Results of dengue indices showed that the settlements around gasoline stations/workshops, in the vicinity of marsh/swamp and rice paddy appeared to be favorable habitat for dengue vector propagation at highly significant and positive correlation (p = 0.001) in the month of May. Settlements around the institutional areas were highly significant and positively correlated (p = 0.01) with H.I. in the month of March. Moreover, dengue indices in the month of March showed a significant and positive correlation (p <= 0.05) with deciduous forest. The H.I. of people living around horticulture land were significantly and positively correlated (p = 0.05) during the month of May, and perennial vegetation showed a highly significant and positive correlation (p = 0.001) in the month of March with C.I. and significant and positive correlation (p <= 0.05) with B.I., respectively.

Conclusions

The study concluded that gasoline stations/workshops, rice paddy, marsh/swamp and deciduous forests played highly significant role in dengue vector growth. Thus, the spatio-temporal relationships of dengue vector larval density and land-use types may help to predict favorable dengue habitat, and thereby enables public healthcare managers to take precautionary measures to prevent impending dengue outbreak.