Table 4

Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and total PA
Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 36, 61, 78, 82, 822, 83, 85, 86, 87 821 8 9/10 90 ++
Residential density 87 32, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34 4 1/8 13 0
Land use mix diversity 34 32, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34 3 1/7 14 0
Street connectivity 32, 32, 32 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 85 4 3/10 30 0
Access to shops/services/work 31, 31, 31, 31, 31, 33F, 67, 74F 8 33M, 33M, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 57, 58, 58, 58, 67, 74M, 74M, 74F, 82, 82, 85 9 8/26 31 00
Access to public transport 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 57 4 0/8 0 00
Access to recreation facilities 24, 28, 28, 30, 30,33M, 33F, 441, 442, 46, 481, 482, 61, 67, 68M, 68F, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 696, 697, 699, 6910, 6911, 6912, 6914, 6915, 6916, 76 32, 33M, 33F, 34, 34, 481, 481, 481, 481, 481, 481, 482, 482, 482, 482, 482, 482, 52, 52, 58, 61, 61, 698, 6913, 6917, 74M, 74M, 74F, 74F, 85 17 31/61 51 (++)
Walking/cycling facilities 26 26, 33M, 33M, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 34, 34, 57, 58, 74M, 74F, 85, 85 7 1/20 5 00
Safety 46, 46, 481, 482 72M, 72M, 72F, 72F, 74M, 74F, 85 6 4/11 36 0
Traffic-related safety 26, 31, 31 32, 32, 46, 58 26, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 58, 85 7 4/17 24 00
Crime-related safety 26, 31 46, 67 26, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 46, 58, 67, 85 7 2/16 13 00
Aesthetics 31, 37, 37, 74M 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 58, 74F, 85 7 4/13 31 00
Urbanization 25, 26, 42M, 42M, 42F, 42F45M, 45F, 56M, 56F 25, 26, 67, 84 7 10/14 71 --
Quality of environment 61, 72F, 72F, 74M, 74F 72M, 72M 3 5/7 71 +

* A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.

Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.

M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; 1 = specific results for 1st subgroup; 2 = specific results for 2nd subgroup; n = specific results for nth subgroup.

Van Holle et al.

Van Holle et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:807   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-807

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