Table 3

Association between violence, mobility for sex work and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India
Currently infected with STIa Infected with HIV
% adjusted ORb(95%CI) adjusted ORc(95%CI) % adjusted ORb(95%CI) adjusted ORc(95%CI)
Experience of violenced
No (N = 1690) 3.9 Referent - 16.6 Referent -
Yes (N = 352) 4.8 1.31 (0.78,2.29) - 25.6 1.58 (1.20, 2.09)** -
Mobility for sex worke
No (N = 714) 4.10 Referent - 14.8 Referent -
Yes (N = 1328) 4.17 1.10 (0.66, 1.83) - 20.0 1.32 (1.01, 1.74)* -
Experience of violence and mobilityf
No violence and not mobile (N = 643) 4.0 - Referent 13.4 - Referent
No violence but mobile (N = 1047) 4.3 - 1.03 (0.60, 1.77) 18.4 - 1.43 (1.06, 1.94)*
Violence but not mobile (N = 71) 4.0 - 1.00 (0.17, 3.04) 27.6 - 2.27 (1.34, 4.16)**
Both violence and mobility (N = 281) 5.1 - 1.45 (0.72, 2.92) 25.2 - 2.07 (1.42, 3.03)***

OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval.

a STI includes: chlamydia and/or gonorrhea.

b Model adjusted for age, marital status, literacy, alcohol consumption, duration of sex work, primary place of entertaining clients, client volume per week, having a regular male partner and experience of sexual violence in past year/mobility for sex work in past year.

c Model adjusted for age, marital status, literacy, alcohol consumption, duration of sex work, primary place of entertaining clients, client volume per week and having a regular male partner.

d Physically beaten or forced to have sexual intercourse by any individual against their will in past one year.

e Travelled outside their current place of residence and practiced sex work during their visit in past one year.

f No violence and not mobile: was not physically beaten or forced to have sexual intercourse against the will and did not travel and practice sex work during their visit outside their current place of residence in past one year; no violence but mobile: was not physically beaten or forced to have sexual intercourse against their will but travelled and practiced sex work during their visit outside their current place of residence in past one year; violence but not mobile: was physically beaten or forced to have sexual intercourse against the will but did not travel and practice sex work during their visit outside their current place of residence in past one year; both violence and mobility: was physically beaten or forced to have sexual intercourse against the will and travelled and practiced sex work during their visit outside their current place of residence in past one year.

*p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.

Ramesh et al.

Ramesh et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:764   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-764

Open Data