Table 3 |
|||
Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking intentions by tobacco promoting/restraining factors among Ghanaian youth (multivariate model), statistically significant odds ratios in bold | |||
Factors | Smoking intentions* | ||
All participants | Never smokers | ||
Model 2 OR (95% CI) | Model 2 OR (95% CI) | R-squared** | |
Environmental and familial tobacco promoting /restraining factors | |||
Smoking allowed on school compound | 0.07 | ||
No (N = 1165) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Yes (N = 50) | 3.5 (1.6-7.8) | 4.7 (1.8-11.8) | |
Don’t know (N = 48) | 1.0 (0.4-2.4) | 1.2 (0.4-3.0) | |
Total (N = 1263) | |||
Taught harmful effects of smoking in school | *** | *** | |
Refused cigarette sale due to age | *** | *** | |
Exposure to advertisement | 0.06 | ||
No (N = 637) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Yes (N = 701) | 1.4 (1.0-1.9) | 1.4 (1.0-2.0) | |
Total (N = 1338) | |||
Parental smoking | 0.06 | ||
None (N = 1063) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Can’t say (N = 21) | 2.4 (0.9-6.4) | 4.7 (1.3-16.9) | |
One or both parents smoke (N = 36) | 3.1 (1.5-6.7) | 2.4 (1.1-5.7) | |
Total (N = 1120) | |||
Family member discussed harmful effects of smoking | *** | *** | |
Knowledge/attitude | |||
Perceive smoking as harmful to health | 0.06 | ||
Agree (N = 1127) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 178) | 2.5 (1.5-3.9) | 2.2 (1.3-3.7) | |
Total (N = 1305) | |||
It is difficult to quit smoking, once started | 0.06 | ||
Agree (N = 971) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 337) | 1.2 (0.7-1.6) | 1.1 (0.7-1.7) | |
Total (N = 1308) | |||
Tobacco should not be sold to those under 18 yrs of age | 0.06 | ||
Agree (N = 1087) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 213) | 1.2 (0.8-1.9) | 1.3 (0.8-2.1) | |
Total (N = 1300) |
*Smoking intentions in the next one year.
** Nagelkerke R-squared.
***Not included in the model because variable not statistically significant at the bivariate level (model 1).
Model 2 = All statistically significant factors in model 1 + age + gender + (multivariate model).
Doku et al.
Doku et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:662 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-662