Table 2

Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking intentions by tobacco promoting/restraining factors among Ghanaian youth (bivariate model), statistically significant odds ratios in bold
Factors Smoking intentions*
All participants Never smokers
Model 1 OR (95% CI) Model 1 OR (95% CI) R-squared**
Age 0.002
12-14-year-olds 1.0 1.0
15-16-year-olds 0.9 (0.6-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
17-18-year-olds 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 0.8 (0.5-1.2)
19-20-year-olds 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 1.2 (0.7-2.0)
Gender 0.000
Boys 1.0 1.0
Girls 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.4)
Environmental and familial tobacco promoting /restraining factors
Smoking allowed on school compound 0.09
No (N = 1165) 1.0 1.0
Yes (N = 50) 3.2 (1.7-5.8) 3.0 (1.5-6.2)
Don’t know (N = 48) 1.9 (1.1-3.8) 2.0 (0.9-4.2)
Total (N = 1263)
Taught harmful effects of smoking in school
Yes (N = 891) 1.0 1.0
No/Not sure (N = 372) 1.2 (0.8-1.5) 1.0 (0.9-1.1)
Total (N = 1263)
Refused cigarette sale due to age
No (N = 71) 1.0 1.0
Yes (N = 93) 1.5 (0.8-2.9) 0.7 (0.3-1.8)
Total (N = 164)
Exposure to advertisement 0.08
No (N = 637) 1.0 1.0
Yes (N = 701) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 1.5 (1.1-2.1)
Total (N = 1338)
Parental smoking 0.08
None (N = 1063) 1.0 1.0
Can’t say (N = 21) 3.1 (1.2-8.0) 4.3 (1.2-15.2)
One or both parents smoke (N = 36) 3.7 (1.8-7.6) 3.0 (1.4-6.6)
Total (N = 1120)
Family member discussed harmful effects of smoking
Yes (N = 918) 1.0 1.0
No (N = 355) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.6)
Total (N = 1273)
Knowledge/attitude
Perceive smoking as harmful to health 0.08
Agree (N = 1127) 1.0 1.0
Disagree/not sure (N = 178) 3.4 (2.4-4.8) 2.9 (1.9-4.3)
Total (N = 1305)
It is difficult to quit smoking, once started 0.08
Agree (N = 971) 1.0 10
Disagree/not sure (N = 337) 1.7 (1.2-2.2) 1.5 (1.1-2.1)
Total (N = 1308)
Tobacco should not be sold to those under 18 yrs of age 0.08
Agree (N = 1087) 1.0 1.0
Disagree/not sure (N = 213) 2.5 (1.8-3.5) 2.1 (1.5-3.1)
Total (N = 1300)

*Smoking intentions in the next one year.

** Nagelkerke R-squared.

Model 1 = Factor + age + gender (bivariate model).

Doku et al.

Doku et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:662   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-662

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