Table 2 |
|||
Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking intentions by tobacco promoting/restraining factors among Ghanaian youth (bivariate model), statistically significant odds ratios in bold | |||
Factors | Smoking intentions* | ||
All participants | Never smokers | ||
Model 1 OR (95% CI) | Model 1 OR (95% CI) | R-squared** | |
Age | 0.002 | ||
12-14-year-olds | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
15-16-year-olds | 0.9 (0.6-1.3) | 0.9 (0.6-1.3) | |
17-18-year-olds | 0.8 (0.6-1.2) | 0.8 (0.5-1.2) | |
19-20-year-olds | 1.0 (0.6-1.7) | 1.2 (0.7-2.0) | |
Gender | 0.000 | ||
Boys | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Girls | 1.0 (0.8-1.3) | 1.0 (0.8-1.4) | |
Environmental and familial tobacco promoting /restraining factors | |||
Smoking allowed on school compound | 0.09 | ||
No (N = 1165) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Yes (N = 50) | 3.2 (1.7-5.8) | 3.0 (1.5-6.2) | |
Don’t know (N = 48) | 1.9 (1.1-3.8) | 2.0 (0.9-4.2) | |
Total (N = 1263) | |||
Taught harmful effects of smoking in school | |||
Yes (N = 891) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
No/Not sure (N = 372) | 1.2 (0.8-1.5) | 1.0 (0.9-1.1) | |
Total (N = 1263) | |||
Refused cigarette sale due to age | |||
No (N = 71) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Yes (N = 93) | 1.5 (0.8-2.9) | 0.7 (0.3-1.8) | |
Total (N = 164) | |||
Exposure to advertisement | 0.08 | ||
No (N = 637) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Yes (N = 701) | 1.6 (1.2-2.1) | 1.5 (1.1-2.1) | |
Total (N = 1338) | |||
Parental smoking | 0.08 | ||
None (N = 1063) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Can’t say (N = 21) | 3.1 (1.2-8.0) | 4.3 (1.2-15.2) | |
One or both parents smoke (N = 36) | 3.7 (1.8-7.6) | 3.0 (1.4-6.6) | |
Total (N = 1120) | |||
Family member discussed harmful effects of smoking | |||
Yes (N = 918) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
No (N = 355) | 1.1 (0.8-1.5) | 1.1 (0.8-1.6) | |
Total (N = 1273) | |||
Knowledge/attitude | |||
Perceive smoking as harmful to health | 0.08 | ||
Agree (N = 1127) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 178) | 3.4 (2.4-4.8) | 2.9 (1.9-4.3) | |
Total (N = 1305) | |||
It is difficult to quit smoking, once started | 0.08 | ||
Agree (N = 971) | 1.0 | 10 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 337) | 1.7 (1.2-2.2) | 1.5 (1.1-2.1) | |
Total (N = 1308) | |||
Tobacco should not be sold to those under 18 yrs of age | 0.08 | ||
Agree (N = 1087) | 1.0 | 1.0 | |
Disagree/not sure (N = 213) | 2.5 (1.8-3.5) | 2.1 (1.5-3.1) | |
Total (N = 1300) |
*Smoking intentions in the next one year.
** Nagelkerke R-squared.
Model 1 = Factor + age + gender (bivariate model).
Doku et al.
Doku et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:662 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-662