Table 4

Barriers to help seeking by gender, ethnicity, age and knowing someone with cancer
Barrier % Yes (n) Gender (n = 478) Ethnicity (n = 470) Age (n = 458) Knew someone with cancer (n = 441)
Male Female Significance* White Other Significance* Child Teenager Significance* Yes No Significance*
(n = 250) (n = 228) (n = 438) (n = 32) (n = 108) (n = 350) (n = 292) (n = 149)
Emotional Barriers
Worried about what the doctor might find 62.7 (156) 82.4 (187) χ2(1, 476) = 22.95 72.5 (316) 62.5 (20) χ2(1, 468) = 1.47 75.9 (82) 71.3 (248) χ2(1, 456) = 0.90 74.7 (218) 68.7 (101) χ2(1, 439) = 1.74
p < 0.001 p = 0.226 p = 0.344 p = 0.187
Too scared 43.8 (109) 66.8 (151) χ2(1, 475) = 25.38 55.2 (240) 50.0 (16) χ2(1, 467) = 0.32 46.7 (50) 57.8 (201) χ2(1, 455) = 4.03 57.9 (169) 47.3 (69) χ2(1, 438) = 4.42
p < 0.001 p = 0.570 p = 0.045 p = 0.035
Too embarrassed 46.0 (114) 67.3 (152) χ2(1, 474) = 21.76 56.7 (246) 50.0 (16) χ2(1, 466) = 0.54 49.5 (53) 58.5 (203) χ2(1,454) = 2.68 58.1 (169) 50.0 (73) χ2(1, 437) = 2.57
p < 0.001 p = 0.462 p = 0.102 p = 0.109
Not confident to talk about symptoms 46.6 (116) 61.5 (139) χ2(1, 475) = 10.60 54.7 (238) 40.6 (13) χ2(1, 467) = 2.38 54.2 (58) 54.3 (189) χ2(1, 455) < 0.01 54.1 (158) 50.7 (74) χ2(1, 438) = 0.46
p = 0.001 p = 0.123 p = 0.985 p = 0.498
Practical Barriers
Too busy 23.0 (57) 23.5 (53) χ2(1, 474) = 0.01 22.4 (97) 28.1 (9) χ2(1,466) = 0.57 15.0 (16) 25.6 (89) χ2(1, 454) = 5.26 21.2 (62) 23.4 (34) χ2(1, 437) = 0.28
p = 0.904 p = 0.452 p = 0.022 p = 0.598
Other things to worry about 17.0 (42) 21.2 (48) χ2(1, 473) = 1.37 18.7 (81) 19.4 (6) χ2(1, 465) = 0.01 13.1 (14) 21.1 (73) χ2(1, 453) = 3.38 18.3 (53) 17.8 (26) χ2(1, 436) = 0.01
p = 0.241 p = 0.924 p = 0.066 p = 0.905
Difficult to arrange transport 16.5 (41) 14.2 (32) χ2(1, 475) = 0.49 13.6 (59) 31.3 (10) χ2(1, 467) = 7.41 16.8 (18) 14.9 (52) χ2(1, 455) = 0.22 13.4 (39) 17.1 (25) χ2(1, 438) = 1.11
p = 0.486 p = 0.016 p = 0.637 p = 0.293
Service Barriers
Difficult to make an appointment 19.8 (49) 21.2 (48) χ2(1, 473) = 0.14 19.4 (84) 31.3 (10) χ2(1, 465) = 2.60 15.9 (17) 21.6 (75) χ2(1, 454) = 1.66 20.3 (59) 17.8 (26) χ2(1, 436) = 0.40
p = 0.706 p = 0.107 p = 0.198 p = 0.528
Worried about wasting the doctor’s time 27.3 (68) 39.6 (89) χ2(1, 474) = 8.00 33.8 (147) 28.1 (9) χ2(1, 467) = 0.43 33.6 (36) 33.9 (118) χ2(1, 455) < 0.01 32.9 (96) 31.0 (45) χ2(1, 437) = 0.15
p = 0.005 p = 0.512 p = 0.960 p = 0.698
Difficult to talk to doctor 30.6 (76) 38.5 (87) χ2(1, 474) = 3.23 34.1 (148) 34.4 (11) χ2(1, 466) < 0.01 37.4 (40) 33.4 (116) χ2(1, 454) = 0.57 34.4 (100) 29.5 (43) χ2(1, 437) = 1.07
p = 0.072 p = 0.975 p = 0.452 p = 0.302

Notes:

* Pearson’s χ2 test for 2×2 tables (i.e., Yes vs. No/Don’t know for each demographic variable). Statistically significant associations at the p < 0.05 level are emboldened.

† Fisher’s Exact Probability reported due to violation of χ2 assumption that tables should not have more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five.

Kyle et al.

Kyle et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:580   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-580

Open Data