# Table 3

Recognition of cancer warning signs by gender, ethnicity, age and knowing someone with cancer
Cancer warning sign % Yes (n) Gender (n = 478) Ethnicity (n = 470) Age (n = 458) Knew someone with cancer (n = 441)
Male Female Significance* White Other Significance* Child Teenager Significance* Yes No Significance*
(n = 250) (n = 228) (n = 438) (n = 32) (n = 108) (n = 350) (n = 292) (n = 149)
Lump or swelling 88.3 (219) 91.2 (208) χ2(1, 476) = 1.10 89.7 (391) 90.6 (29) χ2(1, 468) = 0.03 80.4 (86) 93.7 (327) χ2(1, 456) = 17.02 93.1 (271) 85.8 (127) χ2(1, 439) = 6.20
p = 0.295 p = 1.000† p < 0.001 p = 0.013
Unexplained pain 47.6 (118) 44.7 (101) χ2(1, 474) = 0.40 46.0 (200) 45.2 (14) χ2(1, 466) = 0.01 38.3 (41) 48.1 (167) χ2(1, 454) = 3.17 48.1 (139) 41.9 (62) χ2(1, 437) = 1.52
p = 0.528 p = 0.930 p = 0.075 p = 0.218
Unexplained bleeding 48.0 (119) 49.6 (113) χ2(1, 476) = 0.12 49.2 (215) 41.9 (13) χ2(1, 468) = 0.61 43.5 (47) 50.6 (176) χ2(1, 456) = 1.64 54.3 (158) 37.8 (56) χ2(1, 439) = 10.64
p = 0.731 p = 0.434 p = 0.200 p = 0.001
Cough or hoarseness 36.7 (91) 26.8 (61) χ2(1, 476) = 5.40 31.8 (139) 25.8 (8) χ2(1, 468) = 0.48 23.1 (25) 34.2 (119) χ2(1, 456) = 4.66 35.4 (103) 28.4 (42) χ2(1, 439) = 2.18
p = 0.020 p = 0.487 p = 0.031 p = 0.139
Change in bowel/bladder habits 54.4 (135) 53.3 (121) χ2(1, 475) = 0.06 55.5 (242) 35.5 (11) χ2(1, 467) = 4.67 56.5 (61) 53.9 (187) χ2(1, 455) = 0.22 60.3 (175) 41.9 (62) χ2(1, 438) = 13.44
p = 0.805 p = 0.031 p = 0.637 p < 0.001
Difficulty swallowing 36.6 (90) 35.2 (80) χ2(1, 473) = 0.09 35.4 (154) 41.9 (13) χ2(1, 466) = 0.54 26.9 (29) 38.4 (133) χ2(1, 454) = 4.82 36.2 (105) 33.6 (49) χ2(1, 436) = 0.30
p = 0.761 p = 0.464 p = 0.028 p = 0.585
Change in appearance of a mole 54.5 (134) 64.5 (147) χ2(1, 474) = 4.90 60.8 (265) 41.9 (13) χ2(1, 467) = 4.27 51.9 (56) 62.5 (217) χ2(1, 455) = 3.92 66.7 (194) 50.0 (73) χ2(1, 437) = 11.36
p = 0.027 p = 0.039 p = 0.048 p = 0.001
Sore that does not heal 28.0 (69) 19.7 (45) χ2(1, 474) = 4.48 24.5 (107) 22.6 (7) χ2(1, 467) = 0.06 20.4 (22) 25.6 (89) χ2(1, 455) = 1.24 25.9 (75) 22.4 (33) χ2(1, 437) = 0.61
p = 0.034 p = 0.806 p = 0.265 p = 0.435
Unexplained weight loss 42.1 (104) 39.5 (90) χ2(1, 475) = 0.34 41.3 (180) 32.3 (10) χ2(1, 467) = 0.98 36.1 (39) 42.4 (147) χ2(1, 455) = 1.33 43.8 (127) 35.8 (53) χ2(1, 438) = 2.58
p = 0.560 p = 0.323 p = 0.248 p = 0.108

Notes:

* Pearson’s χ2 test for 2×2 tables (i.e., Yes vs. No/Don’t know for each demographic variable). Statistically significant associations at the p < 0.05 level are emboldened.

† Fisher’s Exact Probability reported due to violation of χ2 assumption that tables should not have more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five.

Kyle et al.

Kyle et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:580   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-580