Table 4

Sleep duration: associations with socioeconomic factors
Model 1 Adjusted for age and gender Model 2 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children and area Model 3 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status and income Model 4 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status, income and self-perceived health
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
PARENTAL EDUCATION
< 5 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 1.05 (0.38, 2.86) 0.93 1.05 (0.38, 2.89) 0.93 0.89 (0.32, 2.46) 0.82 0.90 (0.32, 2.52) 0.84
 Low 1.52 (0.71, 3.24) 0.28 1.44 (0.67, 3.09) 0.35 0.93 (0.41, 2.11) 0.87 0.91 (0.40, 2.07) 0.81
 Do not know 1.96 (0.62, 6.20) 0.25 1.79 (0.56, 5.74) 0.33 0.93 (0.26, 3.36) 0.91 0.90 (0.23, 3.43) 0.87
5 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 5.27 (1.20, 23.2) 0.03 5.31 (1.21, 23.3) 0.03 4.47 (1.02, 19.6) 0.05 4.51 (1.09, 18.7) 0.04
 Low 3.84 (0.94, 15.6) 0.06 3.61 (0.98, 14.7) 0.07 2.36 (0.57, 9.76) 0.24 2.31 (0.59, 9.12) 0.23
 Do not know 4.73 (0.82, 27.4) 0.08 4.36 (0.76, 25.1) 0.10 2.56 (0.43, 15.3) 0.30 2.54 (0.41, 15.7) 0.31
6 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 0.87 (0.53, 1.44) 0.60 0.88 (0.53, 1.46) 0.63 0.87 (0.52, 1.44) 0.59 0.87 (0.53, 1.45) 0.60
 Low 0.99 (0.68, 1.43) 0.95 0.98 (0.68, 1.42) 0.92 0.90 (0.60, 1.33) 0.59 0.89 (0.60, 1.33) 0.58
 Do not know 0.53 (0.21, 1.29) 0.16 0.48 (0.19, 1.19) 0.12 0.44 (0.17, 1.11) 0.08 0.44 (0.17, 1.11) 0.08
8 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 1.00 (0.71, 1.40) 1.00 0.99 (0.71, 1.39) 0.96 0.97 (0.69, 1.35) 0.84 0.98 (0.70, 1.37) 0.90
 Low 0.96 (0.74, 1.26) 0.79 0.94 (0.72, 1.22) 0.65 0.94 (0.72, 1.22) 0.63 0.94 (0.72, 1.24) 0.68
 Do not know 0.93 (0.57, 1.51) 0.76 0.91 (0.56, 1.49) 0.71 0.81 (0.47, 1.39) 0.45 0.82 (0.48, 1.41) 0.47
9 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 0.84 (0.52, 1.38) 0.50 0.85 (0.52, 1.39) 0.51 0.80 (0.48, 1.33) 0.38 0.81 (0.48, 1.35) 0.41
 Low 0.82 (0.55, 1.22) 0.33 0.82 (0.54, 1.23) 0.33 0.77 (0.50, 1.18) 0.23 0.77 (0.50, 1.19) 0.24
 Do not know 0.81 (0.33, 1.98) 0.65 0.67 (0.26, 1.70) 0.40 0.36 (0.12, 1.08) 0.07 0.36 (0.12, 1.08) 0.07
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 2.76 (0.91, 8.37) 0.07 2.63 (0.87, 7.93) 0.08 2.19 (0.72, 6.68) 0.17 2.37 (0.76, 7.35) 0.14
 Low 1.88 (0.70, 5.00) 0.21 1.58 (0.60, 4.18) 0.35 1.11 (0.41, 3.02) 0.84 1.15 (0.42, 3.17) 0.78
 Do not know 0.57 (0.06, 5.47) 0.63 - - - - - -
Global P-value 0.44 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
n 5445 5437 5307 5300
OWN EDUCATION
< 5 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 1.86 (1.21, 2.86) 0.005 1.78 (1.14, 2.78) 0.01 1.67 (1.02, 2.73) 0.04 1.60 (0.97, 2.64) 0.07
 low (7–9) 2.31 (1.46, 3.64) 0.0003 2.17 (1.36, 3.48) 0.001 2.03 (1.19, 3.46) 0.009 1.84 (1.07, 3.16) 0.03
 very low (< 7) 2.55 (1.46, 4.44) 0.001 2.25 (1.27, 3.97) 0.005 1.53 (0.79, 2.98) 0.21 1.27 (0.64, 2.53) 0.50
5 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 2.37 (1.44, 3.91) 0.0007 2.25 (1.36, 3.71) 0.002 2.11 (1.22, 3.63) 0.007 1.97 (1.15, 3.38) 0.01
 low (7–9) 2.27 (1.36, 3.79) 0.002 2.10 (1.24, 3.56) 0.006 1.79 (0.97, 3.31) 0.06 1.54 (0.84, 2.82) 0.16
 very low (< 7) 2.29 (1.14, 4.60) 0.02 2.02 (1.03, 3.97) 0.04 1.54 (0.73, 3.24) 0.25 1.27 (0.60, 2.69) 0.53
6 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 1.10 (0.87, 1.38) 0.42 1.07 (0.85, 1.35) 0.56 1.03 (0.81, 1.33) 0.79 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.88
 low (7–9) 1.29 (0.99, 1.68) 0.06 1.26 (0.96, 1.63) 0.09 1.23 (0.91, 1.66) 0.17 1.20 (0.88, 1.62) 0.24
 very low (< 7) 1.61 (1.06, 2.43) 0.02 1.54 (1.01, 2.34) 0.05 1.39 (0.87, 2.23) 0.17 1.34 (0.83, 2.15) 0.23
8 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 0.89 (0.75, 1.07) 0.21 0.89 (0.74, 1.06) 0.18 0.85 (0.71, 1.02) 0.09 0.85 (0.71, 1.02) 0.08
 low (7–9) 1.01 (0.83, 1.22) 0.95 0.98 (0.81, 1.19) 0.83 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.46 0.92 (0.74, 1.14) 0.44
 very low (< 7) 1.07 (0.78, 1.47) 0.68 1.01 (0.73, 1.42) 0.93 0.86 (0.59, 1.27) 0.45 0.85 (0.57, 1.25) 0.40
9 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 0.85 (0.65, 1.11) 0.23 0.85 (0.64, 1.11) 0.23 0.87 (0.64, 1.18) 0.37 0.86 (0.64, 1.16) 0.33
 low (7–9) 1.09 (0.81, 1.46) 0.57 1.05 (0.78, 1.40) 0.76 0.92 (0.66, 1.28) 0.62 0.91 (0.65, 1.27) 0.57
 very low (< 7) 1.46 (0.82, 2.60) 0.20 1.31 (0.73, 2.35) 0.37 0.92 (0.50, 1.72) 0.80 0.90 (0.48, 1.67) 0.73
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 1.55 (0.96, 2.51) 0.07 1.42 (0.87, 2.31) 0.16 1.26 (0.72, 2.20) 0.43 1.19 (0.68, 2.10) 0.55
 low (7–9) 1.84 (1.17, 2.92) 0.009 1.54 (0.98, 2.44) 0.06 1.03 (0.56, 1.90) 0.93 0.90 (0.48, 1.69) 0.74
 very low (< 7) 2.69 (1.46, 4.96) 0.002 2.19 (1.15, 4.15) 0.02 1.41 (0.65, 3.02) 0.38 1.18 (0.53, 2.61) 0.68
Global P-value <0.0001 0.0003 0.03 0.05
n 5560 5550 5307 5300
HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVEL
< 5 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.28 (0.87, 1.86) 0.21 1.38 (0.93, 2.05) 0.11 1.25 (0.81, 1.92) 0.32 1.26 (0.81, 1.95) 0.30
 2nd 1.63 (1.09, 2.42) 0.02 1.68 (1.13, 2.51) 0.01 1.33 (0.81, 2.18) 0.26 1.27 (0.77, 2.10) 0.34
 lowest income quartile 1.87 (1.27, 2.77) 0.002 1.74 (1.14, 2.65) 0.01 1.34 (0.81, 2.21) 0.25 1.28 (0.77, 2.12) 0.34
5 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.24 (0.72, 2.12) 0.44 1.39 (0.81, 2.38) 0.23 1.11 (0.63, 1.96) 0.72 1.07 (0.61, 1.89) 0.82
 2nd 1.54 (0.92, 2.58) 0.10 1.63 (0.96, 2.76) 0.07 1.29 (0.73, 2.30) 0.38 1.23 (0.69, 2.19) 0.48
 lowest income quartile 2.29 (1.38, 3.81) 0.002 2.25 (1.33, 3.82) 0.003 1.68 (0.91, 3.11) 0.09 1.55 (0.84, 2.87) 0.16
6 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 0.24 1.25 (0.94, 1.65) 0.12 1.21 (0.91, 1.61) 0.19 1.20 (0.90, 1.59) 0.21
 2nd 1.29 (1.00, 1.65) 0.05 1.34 (1.03, 1.75) 0.03 1.25 (0.93, 1.67) 0.13 1.23 (0.92, 1.64) 0.17
 lowest income quartile 1.56 (1.20, 2.02) 0.0008 1.50 (1.13, 1.99) 0.005 1.39 (0.98, 1.97) 0.06 1.36 (0.96, 1.91) 0.08
8 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.19 (1.01, 1.40) 0.04 1.21 (1.03, 1.44) 0.02 1.21 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04 1.20 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04
 2nd 1.18 (0.99, 1.41) 0.07 1.20 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04 1.17 (0.96, 1.43) 0.12 1.17 (0.96, 1.43) 0.12
 lowest income quartile 1.31 (1.07, 1.60) 0.009 1.36 (1.10, 1.68) 0.005 1.32 (1.03, 1.70) 0.03 1.31 (1.02, 1.68) 0.04
9 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.56 (1.16, 2.11) 0.004 1.66 (1.23, 2.24) 0.0009 1.47 (1.07, 2.00) 0.02 1.47 (1.08, 2.01) 0.01
 2nd 1.59 (1.15, 2.19) 0.005 1.67 (1.21, 2.32) 0.002 1.20 (0.80, 1.78) 0.38 1.19 (0.80, 1.77) 0.40
 lowest income quartile 2.31 (1.69, 3.15) <0.0001 2.47 (1.77, 3.44) <0.0001 1.67 (1.11, 2.50) 0.01 1.65 (1.10, 2.48) 0.01
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.41 (0.76, 2.61) 0.27 1.72 (0.92, 3.20) 0.09 1.16 (0.61, 2.20) 0.65 1.13 (0.60, 2.12) 0.71
 2nd 3.17 (1.84, 5.46) <0.0001 3.66 (2.09, 6.40) <0.0001 1.75 (0.96, 3.20) 0.07 1.60 (0.88, 2.92) 0.12
 lowest income quartile 5.02 (2.83, 8.89) <0.0001 5.29 (2.90, 9.65) <0.0001 2.20 (1.12, 4.32) 0.02 1.99 (1.02, 3.87) 0.04
Global P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 0.20 0.34
n 5453 5453 5307 5300
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
< 5 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 1.82 (1.07, 3.09) 0.03 1.65 (0.97, 2.81) 0.06 1.34 (0.75, 2.39) 0.32 1.15 (0.65, 2.04) 0.63
 Disability pension 2.02 (1.16, 3.51) 0.01 1.92 (1.10, 3.34) 0.02 1.53 (0.81, 2.89) 0.19 1.17 (0.62, 2.20) 0.62
 Old age retirement 1.29 (0.74, 2.23) 0.37 1.29 (0.74, 2.24) 0.36 1.04 (0.57, 1.91) 0.89 1.01 (0.54, 1.88) 0.98
 Other pension 1.28 (0.61, 2.70) 0.52 1.21 (0.57, 2.55) 0.62 1.07 (0.49, 2.33) 0.86 1.06 (0.48, 2.37) 0.88
 Other 1.23 (0.43, 3.51) 0.69 1.25 (0.43, 3.60) 0.69 1.00 (0.30, 3.29) 1.00 0.93 (0.28, 3.12) 0.90
5 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 1.76 (0.93, 3.35) 0.08 1.64 (0.87, 3.09) 0.13 1.21 (0.63, 2.31) 0.57 0.99 (0.52, 1.89) 0.98
 Disability pension 2.54 (1.32, 4.88) 0.005 2.52 (1.31, 4.82) 0.005 2.08 (1.07, 4.03) 0.03 1.40 (0.71, 2.77) 0.33
 Old age retirement 1.37 (0.70, 2.70) 0.36 1.42 (0.72, 2.80) 0.31 1.13 (0.56, 2.28) 0.74 0.97 (0.47, 1.99) 0.94
 Other pension 0.46 (0.11, 1.87) 0.27 0.44 (0.10, 1.86) 0.26 0.37 (0.09, 1.51) 0.17 0.36 (0.09, 1.47) 0.15
 Other 1.29 (0.35, 4.68) 0.70 1.44 (0.40, 5.26) 0.58 1.40 (0.39, 5.05) 0.61 1.25 (0.39, 4.02) 0.71
6 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 1.09 (0.74, 1.60) 0.66 0.99 (0.67, 1.46) 0.94 0.85 (0.56, 1.30) 0.46 0.84 (0.55, 1.28) 0.42
 Disability pension 1.50 (1.05, 2.15) 0.03 1.39 (0.96, 1.99) 0.08 1.12 (0.77, 1.61) 0.55 1.04 (0.72, 1.52) 0.82
 Old age retirement 1.22 (0.89, 1.68) 0.22 1.18 (0.85, 1.65) 0.32 0.97 (0.67, 1.39) 0.86 0.97 (0.68, 1.40) 0.89
 Other pension 0.68 (0.35, 1.31) 0.25 0.65 (0.33, 1.27) 0.21 0.62 (0.31, 1.24) 0.18 0.62 (0.31, 1.24) 0.18
 Other 1.13 (0.64, 2.00) 0.67 1.20 (0.68, 2.13) 0.53 1.08 (0.59, 1.97) 0.80 1.07 (0.59, 1.94) 0.82
8 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 1.17 (0.93, 1.48) 0.18 1.17 (0.93, 1.47) 0.19 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.89 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.90
 Disability pension 1.40 (1.06, 1.85) 0.02 1.41 (1.06, 1.86) 0.02 1.31 (0.97, 1.77) 0.08 1.31 (0.96, 1.79) 0.09
 Old age retirement 1.55 (1.16, 2.07) 0.003 1.60 (1.21, 2.14) 0.001 1.45 (1.08, 1.94) 0.01 1.45 (1.09, 1.94) 0.01
 Other pension 1.21 (0.75, 1.96) 0.43 1.20 (0.75, 1.93) 0.45 1.12 (0.69, 1.81) 0.65 1.12 (0.69, 1.82) 0.64
 Other 1.69 (1.16, 2.45) 0.006 1.68 (1.15, 2.46) 0.007 1.60 (1.07, 2.37) 0.02 1.61 (1.08, 2.39) 0.02
9 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 2.19 (1.49, 3.21) 0.0001 2.10 (1.43, 3.09) 0.0002 1.90 (1.23, 2.92) 0.003 1.87 (1.22, 2.87) 0.004
 Disability pension 4.24 (2.55, 7.05) <0.0001 4.07 (2.44, 6.79) <0.0001 3.85 (2.29, 6.48) <0.0001 3.62 (2.13, 6.15) <0.0001
 Old age retirement 5.62 (3.33, 9.48) <0.0001 5.61 (3.34, 9.43) <0.0001 5.49 (3.11, 9.67) <0.0001 5.46 (3.11, 9.60) <0.0001
 Other pension 2.75 (1.32, 5.72) 0.007 2.38 (1.14, 4.95) 0.02 2.27 (1.06, 4.88) 0.03 2.24 (1.04, 4.83) 0.04
 Other 3.40 (2.28, 5.09) <0.0001 3.34 (2.20, 5.06) <0.0001 3.09 (2.02, 4.74) <0.0001 3.08 (2.00, 4.74) <0.0001
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 7.22 (4.00, 13.0) <0.0001 6.11 (3.39, 11.0) <0.0001 4.60 (2.45, 8.64) <0.0001 4.10 (2.19, 7.67) <0.0001
 Disability pension 17.3 (9.29, 32.3) <0.0001 15.2 (8.16, 28.2) <0.0001 12.5 (6.51, 24.2) <0.0001 9.53 (4.85, 18.7) <0.0001
 Old age retirement 10.3 (5.24, 20.3) <0.0001 11.1 (5.57, 22.2) <0.0001 9.21 (4.43, 19.2) <0.0001 9.23 (4.34, 19.6) <0.0001
 Other pension 5.31 (1.82, 15.5) 0.002 3.92 (1.16, 13.3) 0.03 3.80 (1.09, 13.3) 0.04 3.70 (1.07, 12.8) 0.04
 Other 9.14 (4.51, 18.5) <0.0001 11.4 (5.75, 22.7) <0.0001 8.58 (3.88, 19.0) <0.0001 8.27 (3.78, 18.1) <0.0001
Global P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
n 5578 5568 5307 5300

Lallukka et al.

Lallukka et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:565   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-565

Open Data