Table 3

Outcomes by level of social disadvantage
Outcome No post-secondary education Post-secondary education Effect ratio
230 FMU/ 230 OU OR (95% CI) 609 FMU / 609 OU OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
N FMU / N OU FMU / OU N FMU / N OU FMU / OU No post sec./Post sec .
Optimal outcome of birth* 192/156 2.4 (1.5-3.9) 510/434 2.7 (1.9-3.7) 0.9 (0.5-1.6)
Perinatal outcomes
Apgar score <9/5 min 5/5 1.0 (0.3-3.5) 10/15 0.7 (0.3-1.5) 1.5 (0.3-6.6)
NICU admission >24 hours 7/10 0.7 (0.3-1.8) 11/13 0.8 (0.4-1.9) 0.8 (0.2-3.0)
Infant readmission 0–28 days p.p. 8/7 1.1 (0.4-3.2) 15/28 0.5 (0.3-1.003) 2.1 (0.6-7.0)
Maternal outcomes
Intact perineum 159/144 1.4 (0.9-2.1) 355/322 1.3 (1.002-1.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
3rd-4th degree perineal tear 5/6 0.8 (0.6-2.7) 14/18 0.8 (0.4-1.6) 1.1 (0.3-4.5)
Maternal readmission 0–28 days p.p. 4/10 0.4 (0.1-1.3) 20/30 0. 7 (0.4-1.2) 0.6 (0.2-2.2)
Interventions
Caesarean section 6/11 0.5 (0.2-1.5) 13/23 0.5 (0.3-1.1) 1.0 (0.3-3.5)
Instrumental delivery 5/11 0.4 (0.1-1.3) 20/50 0.3 (0.2-0.6) 1.2 (0.3-4.2)
Syntocinon augmentation of labour 19/40 0.4 (0.2-0.7) 50/114 0.3 (0.2-0.5) 1.0 (0.5-2.3)
Pain relief and position for birth:
Epidural analgesia 10/27 0.3 (0.1-0.7) 25/59 0.3 (0.2-0.6) 0.8 (0.3-2.1)
Water birth 33/15 2.5 (1.3-4.9) 126/56 2.6 (1.8-3.7) 1.0 (0.4-2.0)
Upright position for birth 43/28 1.6 (0.8-3.2) 145/130 1.9 (1.4-2.7) 0.8 (0.4-1.8)

*Defined as uncomplicated birth with spontaneous onset of labour between 37 + 0 and 42 +0 weeks of gestation leading to spontaneous birth of an infant with a minimum Apgar score at 9 or 10 at 5 minutes. No shoulder dystocia, 3–4 degree perineal tear, no bleeding >500 ml, retained placenta, no caesarean section, no instrumental delivery, no medical augmentation of labour, and no episiotomy. (Women having medical analgesia (including epidural analgesia), CTG monitoring and amniotomy are included if not experiencing the mentioned complications or interventions).

Overgaard et al.

Overgaard et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:478   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-478

Open Data