Table 3

Baseline characteristics of the participants
Participants Intervention group Control group Significance*
n = 536 n = 283 n = 253
Median age in years 45 (37–52) 45 (37–52) 44 (37–51) 0.49
Men (%) 265 (49.4) 136 (48.1) 129 (51.0) 0.50
Education (%) 0.36
Elementarya 61 (11.7) 27 (9.9) 34 (13.7)
Intermediateb 364 (70.0) 192 (70.6) 172 (69.4)
University or equivalentc 95 (18.3) 53 (19.5) 42 (16.9)
Family with DM (%)d 398 (76.2) 214 (77.8) 184 (74.5) 0.37
Median BMI in kg/m2 26.9 (24.5–29.6) 26.9 (24.7–29.5) 27.0 (24.4–29.8) 0.90
Mean waist circumference in cm
Men 95.0 (10.9) 95.0 (10.5) 95.0 (11.4) 0.99
Women 90.7 (10.5) 90.4 (10.6) 91.1 (10.4) 0.60
Median SBP in mm Hg 125.5 (117.0–37.3) 125.7 (117.5–7.5) 125.0 (116.5–36.5) 0.53
Mean DBP in mm Hg 83.0 (10.0) 83.3 (9.9) 82.7 (10.2) 0.51
Hypertension (%)e| 200 (38.6) 105 (38.3) 95 (38.9) 0.89
Plasma glucose in mmol/l
Mean FPG 5.3 (0.5) 5.3 (0.6) 5.3 (0.5) 0.77
Median 2-h postload glucose 5.8 (4.8–6.9) 5.9 (5.0–7.0) 5.5 (4.8–6.9) 0.12
Median HbA1c in % 5.7 (5.4–5.9) 5.7 (5.4–5.9) 5.6 (5.4–5.9) 0.31
Median HOMA-IR 3.1 (2.2–4.1) 3.1 (2.2–4.2) 3.0 (2.3–4.1) 0.91
Median insulin in pmol/l 12.9 (9.6–17.3) 13.4 (9.6–17.5) 12.8 (9.6–17.1) 0.86
Mean LDL in mmol/l 3.2 (0.9) 3.2 (0.8) 3.2 (0.9) 0.83
Median HDL in mmol/l) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.27

Data are given as n (percentages, calculated excluding missings), means (SD) if normally distributed or medians (IQRs) if not normally distributed.

*p is given as calculated with the chi-squared test (binary data), independent t-test (continuous data), or Mann–Whitney U test (ordinal/nominal data and not normally distributed data).

aPrimary education or less.

bLow vocational training, lower secondary education, intermediate vocational training and higher secondary education.

cHigher vocational training and university.

dFirst and second grade.

eSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or if hypertension medication.

BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance; IQR, interquartile range; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation.

Vlaar et al.

Vlaar et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:371   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-371

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