Table 1

Cooking locations, expenditures, and smoke exposure at baseline and follow-up, Nyanza Province, Kenya, July 2008–December 2009 a
Baseline survey Follow-up survey
Three-stone stove Three-stone stove Upesi jiko P-valueb
(n= 1250) (n= 202) (n= 91)
N(%) N(%) N(%)
Cooking locationc 0.0002
Indoors, kitchen as separate room 210 (16.8) 38 (18.9) 20 (22.0)
Indoors, same room where people live/sleep 351 (28.1) 68 (33.8) 15 (16.5)
A separate building dedicated for cooking 613 (49.0) 74 (36.8) 54 (59.3)
Outdoors/outside the house 425 (34.0) 21 (10.5) 2 (2.2)
Money spent on firewood (shillings/week)d 0.004
1–99 110 (22.3) 40 (23.0) 34 (40.5)
100–199 205 (41.6) 85 (48.9) 25 (29.8)
200 or more 178 (36.1) 49 (28.2) 25 (29.8)
Total time spent collecting firewood (hours/day)e 0.79
1 or less 315 (27.0) 77 (49.0) 29 (45.3)
2 466 (39.9) 69 (44.0) 29 (45.3)
3 or more 305 (26.1) 11 (7.0) 6 (9.4)
Total time spent cooking (hours/day) 0.19
Less than three 28 (2.2)
3–4 448 (35.8) 96 (48.5) 43 (50.0)
5–6 675 (54.0) 90 (45.5) 42 (48.8)
7 or more 99 (7.9) 12 (6.1) 1 (1.2)
Children <2 years of age present while cookingf 0.27
Yes, always 333 (42.3) 29 (29.0%) 18 (41.9%)
Yes, sometimes 264 (33.5) 53 (53.0%) 17 (39.5%)
Never 191 (24.2) 18 (18.0%) 8 (18.6%)
Daily smoke exposure duration for children <2 years of age 0.01
60 minutes or less 57 (10.0) 64 (78.0%) 21 (61.8%)
60–120 minutes 245 (43.1) 18 (22.0%) 10 (29.4%)
120 minutes or more 267 (46.9) 0 3 (8.8%)
Children 2 to <5 years of age present while cookingf 0.27
Yes, always 375 (37.0) 31 (22.3%) 14 (35.0%)
Yes, sometimes 517 (51.0) 88 (63.3%) 21 (52.5%)
Never 121 (11.9) 20 (14.4%) 5 (12.5%)
Daily smoke exposure duration for children 2 to <5 years of age 0.02
60 minutes or less 64 (7.2) 101 (84.2%) 21 (61.8%)
60–120 minutes 439 (49.2) 17 (14.2%) 12 (41.4%)
120 minutes or more 390 (43.7) 2 (1.7%) 1 (2.9%)
Children 2 to <5 years of age sleep in kitchen at night 0.01
Yes, every night 617 (53.2) 48 (34.5%) 5 (12.8%)
Yes, sometimes/rarely 48 (4.1) 11 (7.9%) 1 (2.6%)
No, never 495 (42.7) 80 (57.6%) 33 (84.6%)

a Stove types are upesi jiko (ceramic-lined cookstoves) vs. three-stone stoves (traditional firepits with surrounding stones).

b P-values are for χ2 tests of association between stove type and cooking locations, expenditures, and smoke exposure in follow-up survey.

c Cooking locations sum to >100% in baseline survey because of multiple locations. Primary cooking locations analyzed for follow-up survey.

d One hundred Kenyan shillings was approximately 1.25 U.S. dollars in 2008.

e Eighty-three (7.1%) respondents reported spending no time collecting firewood in the baseline survey.

f Among 788 (63.0%) households with children less than 2 years of age or 1013 (81.0%) households with children 2 to less than 5 years of age.

Silk et al.

Silk et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:359   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-359

Open Data