Table 4

Associations between selected lifestyle factors and overweight/obesity and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Saudi adolescents
Model Overweight/obesitya WHtRb
β SEE p aOR (95% CI) β SEE p aOR (95% CI)
Intercept - 0.128 0.620 0.836 - −1.891 0.643 0.003 -
Age - 0.036 0.037 0.341 0.97 (0.90-1.04) 0.036 0.039 0.344 1.04 (0.96-1.12)
Sex: Female c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
Male 0.547 0.092 0.000 1.73 (1.44-2.07) 0.421 0.095 0.000 1.52 (1.26-1.84)
School: Public c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
Private 0.402 0.088 0.000 1.50 (1.26-1.78) 0.360 0.091 0.000 1.43 (1.20-1.71)
Total physical activity: Low c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
Medium - 0.238 0.243 0.327 0.79 (0.49-1.27) - 0.106 0.278 0.702 0.89 (0.52-1.55)
High - 0.357 0.271 0.187 0.69 (0.41-1.19) - 0.180 0.515 0.473 0.83 (0.51-1.37)
Vigorous physical activity: low c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
Medium - 0.334 0.148 0.024 0.72 (0.54-0.96) - 0.366 0.152 0.016 0.69 (0.51-0.94)
High - 0.413 0.170 0.015 0.66 (0.47-0.92) - 0.463 0.175 0.008 0.63 (0.45-0.89)
Screen time: ≤ 2 hours/day c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
> 2–5 hours/day 0.086 0.128 0.500 1.09 (0.85-1.39) 0.002 0.132 0.987 1.00 (0.77-1.29)
> 5 hours/day 0.109 0.093 0.239 1.12 (0.93-1.34) 0.014 0.096 0.880 1.02 (0.84-1.22)
Breakfast intake: ≥ 5 days/week c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
3-4 days/week 0.107 0.131 0.415 1.11 (0.86-1.44) 0.074 0.137 0.591 1.08 (0.82-1.41)
< 3 days/week 0.361 0.090 0.000 1.44 (1.20-1.71) 0.382 0.093 0.000 1.47 (1.22-1.76)
Vegetables intake: ≥ 5 days/week c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
3-4 days/week - 0.007 0.108 0.950 0.99 (0.80-1.23) 0.006 0.110 0.958 1.01 (0.81-1.25)
< 3 days/week 0.100 0.106 0.343 1.11 (0.90-1.36) 0.251 0.111 0.024 1.29 (1.03-1.59)
Fruits intake: ≥ 5 days/week c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
3-4 days/week 0.157 0.119 0.187 1.17 (0.93-1.48) 0.027 0.124 0.826 1.03 (0.81-1.31)
< 3 days/week 0.184 0.112 0.100 1.20 (0.97-1.49) 0.125 0.117 0.286 1.13 (0.90-1.43)
Milk intake: ≥ 5 d/week c - - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
3-4 days/week 0.011 0.111 0.920 1.01 (0.81-1.26) 0.061 0.115 0.599 1.06 (0.85-1.33)
< 3 days/week 0.176 0.099 0.075 1.19 (0.98-1.45) 0.199 0.102 0.051 1.22 (0.99-1.49)

Sugar-sweetened drink intake:

≥ 5 days/week c

- - - 1.00 - - - 1.00
3-4 days/week 0.236 0.097 0.015 1.27 (1.05-1.53) 0.161 0.101 0.110 1.18 (0.96-1.43)
< 3 days/week 0.279 0.102 0.006 1.32 (1.08-1.62) 0.353 0.105 0.001 1.42 (1.16-1.75)

Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age.

a Normal weight was used as the reference category.

b WHtR < 0.5 was used as the reference category.

c Reference category.

aOR = age-adjusted odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.

Al-Hazzaa et al.

Al-Hazzaa et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:354   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-354

Open Data