Table 1

Sociodemographic and substance use characteristics of participants by serologic status
Seronegative (n=125) HCV and HIV co-infection (n=190) HCV-monoinfected (n=1128)
Factors n(%) n(%) OR(95%CI) n(%) OR(95%CI)
Sociodemographics
Age (years), median (IQR) 35 (30–45) 40 (32–47) 1.03 (1.004-1.05) 40 (33–48) 1.04 (1.02-1.06)
Male gender 101 (80.8) 158 (83.2) 1.17 (0.65-2.11) 982 (87.1) 1.60 (0.99-2.58)
Year admitted, 2009-2010 51 (40.8) 111 (58.4) 2.01 (1.27-3.18) 614 (54.4) 1.72 (1.18-2.50)
Married status 25 (20.0) 40 (21.1) 1.07 (0.61-1.87) 247 (21.9) 1.12 (0.71-1.78)
Education level≦Primary school 10 (8.0) 30 (15.8) 2.16 (1.10-4.59) 194 (17.2) 2.39 (1.23-4.64)
Unemployment 67 (53.6) 118 (62.1) 1.42 (0.90-2.24) 652 (57.8) 1.19 (0.82-1.72)
Source of most incomea
 Regular employment 77 (61.6) 103 (54.2) 1 689 (61.1) 1
 Social welfare/Family 36 (28.8) 70 (36.8) 1.45 (0.88-2.39) 363 (32.2) 1.23 (0.74-1.71)
 Others 12 (9.6) 17 (8.9) 1.06 (0.48-2.35) 76 (6.7) 0.71 (0.37-1.36)
Living situation
 Live with family 95 (76.0) 134 (70.5) 1 860 (76.2) 1
 Live with friends 20 (16.0) 31 (16.3) 1.10 (0.59-2.04) 112 (9.9) 0.62 (0.37-1.04)
 Live aloneb 10 (8.0) 25 (13.2) 1.77 (0.81-3.86) 156 (13.8) 1.72 (0.88-3.38)
Lifetime MMTP admissions, mean (range) 1.14 (1–4) 1.41 (1–4) 2.63 (1.57-4.39) 1.22 (1–4) 1.49 (0.94-2.37)
Lifetime incarcerations, median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 4 (2–5) 1.92 (1.64-2.25) 3 (2–5) 1.82 (1.58-2.10)
Substance use histories
Age at first injection drug use ≤20 31 (24.8) 66 (34.7) 1.61 (0.98-2.67) 315 (27.9) 1.18 (0.77-1.80)
Length of drug injection (years), mean (range) 9.28 (1–34) 14.56 (1–49) 1.10 (1.06-1.14) 14.76 (1–64) 1.08 (1.05-1.11)
Shared syringesa 11 (8.8) 135 (71.1) 25.44 (12.71-50.90) 161 (14.3) 1.73 (0.91-3.28)
Smoking amphetaminea 75 (60.0) 106 (55.8) 0.84 (0.53-1.33) 514 (45.6) 0.56 (0.38-0.81)
Smoking Marijuanaa 119 (95.2) 184 (96.8) 1.55 (0.49-4.91) 1081 (95.8) 1.16 (0.49-2.77)
Used cocainea 5 (4.0) 5 (2.6) 0.65 (0.18-2.29) 43 (3.8) 0.95 (0.37-2.45)
Swallowed sedative drugsa 17 (13.6) 28 (14.7) 1.10 (0.57-2.10) 145 (12.9) 0.94 (0.55-1.61)
Any alcohol usea 19 (15.2) 20 (10.5) 0.66 (0.34-1.29) 114 (10.1) 0.63 (0.37-1.06)
Urine morphine testingc 113 (90.4) 167 (87.9) 0.77 (0.37-1.61) 1033 (91.6) 1.16 (0.61-2.17)
Urine amphetamine testingc 72 (57.6) 48 (25.3) 0.46 (0.28-0.74) 829 (73.5) 0.49 (0.34-0.72)

HCV, hepatitis C virus. HIV, human immunodeficiency virus. OR, odds ratio. CI, confidence interval. IQR, interquartile range. MMTP, methadone maintenance treatment program.

a During the 6 months before enrollment in the MMTP.

b Including one homeless injection drug user.

c At the time of enrollment in the MMTP.

Yen et al.

Yen et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1066   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1066

Open Data